Neuroscience

Definition

Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the nervous system. It encompasses the evolution, development, cellular and molecular biology, physiology, anatomy and pharmacology of the nervous system, as well as computational, behavioural and cognitive neuroscience.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Parkinson disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency. In this Primer, Poewe et al. discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Parkinson disease.

    • Werner Poewe
    • , Klaus Seppi
    • , Caroline M. Tanner
    • , Glenda M. Halliday
    • , Patrik Brundin
    • , Jens Volkmann
    • , Anette-Eleonore Schrag
    •  & Anthony E. Lang
  • Research | | open

    The orbitofrontal cortex encodes outcomes, expected rewards and values, but it is unclear how this region uses this information to inform action selection. Here, the authors show that lateral orbitofrontal cortex anticipates upcoming choices and combines recent prior information with current sensory information.

    • Ramon Nogueira
    • , Juan M. Abolafia
    • , Jan Drugowitsch
    • , Emili Balaguer-Ballester
    • , Maria V. Sanchez-Vives
    •  & Rubén Moreno-Bote
  • Research | | open

    In the spinal cord, some Hox genes are transcribed in progenitors while their proteins are only detected in differentiating postmitotic motor neurons. Here, the authors show that miRNAs (specifically mir-27) regulate post-transcriptional Hoxa5 expression in motor neurons.

    • Chung-Jung Li
    • , Tian Hong
    • , Ying-Tsen Tung
    • , Ya-Ping Yen
    • , Ho-Chiang Hsu
    • , Ya-Lin Lu
    • , Mien Chang
    • , Qing Nie
    •  & Jun-An Chen
  • Research |

    Use of a head-mounted miniature microscope in awake, behaving mice reveals that neural ensembles in the basal and lateral amygdala encode associations between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli in a way that matches models of supervised learning.

    • Benjamin F. Grewe
    • , Jan Gründemann
    • , Lacey J. Kitch
    • , Jerome A. Lecoq
    • , Jones G. Parker
    • , Jesse D. Marshall
    • , Margaret C. Larkin
    • , Pablo E. Jercog
    • , Francois Grenier
    • , Jin Zhong Li
    • , Andreas Lüthi
    •  & Mark J. Schnitzer
  • Reviews |

    Microglia are by far the best-characterized macrophages in the CNS, but non-parenchymal populations, such as those found in the meninges, are being increasingly studied. Prinz et al. review the ontogeny and functions of both parenchymal macrophages and non-parenchymal macrophages the CNS.

    • Marco Prinz
    • , Daniel Erny
    •  & Nora Hagemeyer
    Nature Immunology 18, 385–392

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