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Pittet and collaborators show that macrophages can remove anti-PD1 antibodies from T cells, blunting their response, whereas Weissman and colleagues demonstrate that macrophages also express PD1 on their surface, which impairs their phagocytic activity.
Biological sciences encompasses all the divisions of natural sciences examining various aspects of vital processes. The concept includes anatomy, physiology, cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics, and covers all organisms from microorganisms, animals to plants.
Earth and environmental sciences cover all aspects of Earth and planetary sciences, and broadly encompasses solid Earth processes, surface and atmospheric dynamics, Earth system history, climate and climate change, marine and freshwater systems, and ecology. It also considers the interactions between humans and these systems.
The health sciences study all aspects of health, disease and healthcare. This field of study aims to develop knowledge, interventions and technology for use in healthcare to improve the treatment of patients.
Physical sciences are those academic disciplines that aim to uncover the underlying laws of nature - often written in the language of mathematics. It is a collective term for areas of study including astronomy, chemistry, materials science and physics.