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Sex differences in behaviour and disease vulnerability are mirrored by the cellular and molecular sexual dimorphism of the brain. McCarthy and colleagues review findings that have highlighted the roles of inflammation and epigenetics in sex-specific brain differentiation and function.
Stroke recovery requires circuit reorganization and therapeutic efforts have focused on rewiring cortical circuits after stroke, but what about thalamic inputs? Here, the authors examine how thalamocortical axons are affected by stroke and use optogenetic stimulation to promote recovery.
Astrocytic phagocytosis has been shown to play a role in synaptic pruning during development, but whether adult astrocytes possess phagocytic ability is unclear. Here the authors show that following brain ischemia, reactive astrocytes become phagocytic and engulf debris via the ABCA1 pathway.
This article discusses the impact of new drugs on the market for multiple sclerosis, including the recently approved immunomodulatory drug ocrelizumab and drugs in development such as sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators and neurorestorative agents.