Learning and memory


Learning and memory refers to the processes of acquiring, retaining and retrieving information in the central nervous system. It consists of forming stable long-term memories that include declarative (recall of events and facts) and nondeclarative (conditioning, skill learning) forms.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Sensory stimuli evoke temporally dynamic responses. Here the authors report that responses to odour onset and offset are orthogonally represented in the locust antennal lobe, differentially entrain oscillations, and propose a model in which they are necessary for initiation and termination of behaviour.

    • Debajit Saha
    • , Wensheng Sun
    • , Chao Li
    • , Srinath Nizampatnam
    • , William Padovano
    • , Zhengdao Chen
    • , Alex Chen
    • , Ege Altan
    • , Ray Lo
    • , Dennis L. Barbour
    •  & Baranidharan Raman
  • Research | | open

    Deep sleep is hypothesized to restore the brain's capacity to learn. Here the authors provide causal evidence by specifically perturbing slow wave activity over the motor cortex during NREM sleep in humans and demonstrate a reduction in neurophysiological markers of plasticity and capacity for motor learning.

    • Sara Fattinger
    • , Toon T. de Beukelaar
    • , Kathy L. Ruddy
    • , Carina Volk
    • , Natalie C. Heyse
    • , Joshua A. Herbst
    • , Richard H. R. Hahnloser
    • , Nicole Wenderoth
    •  & Reto Huber
  • Research | | open

    Irregular neuronal activity is thought to underlie motor variability. Here the authors use a combination of modelling, neuronal recordings in singing birds and analysis of babbling vocalizations, including of human infants, to show that topographically organized inputs to a widely recurrent motor network self-organize to generate variable motor output.

    • Ran Darshan
    • , William E. Wood
    • , Susan Peters
    • , Arthur Leblois
    •  & David Hansel
  • Reviews |

    How does sleep deprivation affect the human brain? Walker and colleagues review neuroimaging studies on the consequences of sleep deprivation on cognition and emotion — with specific focuses on attention and working memory, positive and negative emotion, and hippocampal learning — and the mechanisms underlying these effects.

    • Adam J. Krause
    • , Eti Ben Simon
    • , Bryce A. Mander
    • , Stephanie M. Greer
    • , Jared M. Saletin
    • , Andrea N. Goldstein-Piekarski
    •  & Matthew P. Walker
  • Research | | open

    Neuronal learning activity is reactivated during sleep but the dynamics of this reactivation in humans are still poorly understood. Here the authors show that memory processing occurs during all stages of sleep in humans but that reprocessing of memory content in REM and non-REM sleep has different effects on later memory performance.

    • M. Schönauer
    • , S. Alizadeh
    • , H. Jamalabadi
    • , A. Abraham
    • , A. Pawlizki
    •  & S. Gais
  • Research | | open

    Distinct subsets of dopaminergic PAM neurons have been shown to be involved in short-term and long-term memory for sugar reward. Here the authors report the neural circuits and the cellular and molecular mechanisms for short-term and long-term memory for water reward in thirsty Drosophila.

    • Wei-Huan Shyu
    • , Tai-Hsiang Chiu
    • , Meng-Hsuan Chiang
    • , Yu-Chin Cheng
    • , Ya-Lun Tsai
    • , Tsai-Feng Fu
    • , Tony Wu
    •  & Chia-Lin Wu

News and Comment