Circadian rhythms and sleep

Definition

Circadian rhythms are the regular, daily cycles of biological processes or activities, including the regular and predictable variation in the levels of many circulating hormones, ions and the control of sleep and wakefulness. Circadian rhythms are controlled centrally by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and are most strongly infuenced by light.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    Sleep patterns vary and are associated with health and disease. Here Purcell et al characterize sleep spindle activity in 11,630 individuals and describe age-related changes, genetic influences, and possible confounding effects, serving as a resource for further understanding the physiology of sleep.

    • S. M. Purcell
    • , D. S. Manoach
    • , C. Demanuele
    • , B. E. Cade
    • , S. Mariani
    • , R. Cox
    • , G. Panagiotaropoulou
    • , R. Saxena
    • , J. Q. Pan
    • , J. W. Smoller
    • , S. Redline
    •  & R. Stickgold
  • Research | | open

    The emergence of the adult fruit flies from the pupae is jointly regulated by the central and peripheral clocks. Selcho et al. show that synchronization of the two clocks is mediated by the master clock brain neurons producing sNPF, and non-clock PTTH neurons that regulate the peripheral clock producing the steroid moulting hormone, ecdysone.

    • Mareike Selcho
    • , Carola Millán
    • , Angelina Palacios-Muñoz
    • , Franziska Ruf
    • , Lilian Ubillo
    • , Jiangtian Chen
    • , Gregor Bergmann
    • , Chihiro Ito
    • , Valeria Silva
    • , Christian Wegener
    •  & John Ewer
  • Research | | open

    During non-REM sleep, the thalamus produces spindles and the cortex produces downstates, but the interaction between these two areas in these sleep phenomena is not understood. Here, authors describe the dynamic loop between the thalamus and cortex that organizes the production of spindles and downstates in the human brain.

    • Rachel A. Mak-McCully
    • , Matthieu Rolland
    • , Anna Sargsyan
    • , Chris Gonzalez
    • , Michel Magnin
    • , Patrick Chauvel
    • , Marc Rey
    • , Hélène Bastuji
    •  & Eric Halgren
  • Reviews |

    How does sleep deprivation affect the human brain? Walker and colleagues review neuroimaging studies on the consequences of sleep deprivation on cognition and emotion — with specific focuses on attention and working memory, positive and negative emotion, and hippocampal learning — and the mechanisms underlying these effects.

    • Adam J. Krause
    • , Eti Ben Simon
    • , Bryce A. Mander
    • , Stephanie M. Greer
    • , Jared M. Saletin
    • , Andrea N. Goldstein-Piekarski
    •  & Matthew P. Walker

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