Immunology

Definition

Immunology is the branch of biomedical sciences concerned with all aspects of the immune system in all multicellular organisms.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease characterized by progressive lung scarring that is thought to occur in a genetically susceptible, ageing individual through aberrant reparative responses to repeated injury to the alveolar epithelium. This Primer summarizes the processes thought to underlie the development of IPF and clinical challenges faced in treating patients with this irreversible condition.

    • Fernando J. Martinez
    • , Harold R. Collard
    • , Annie Pardo
    • , Ganesh Raghu
    • , Luca Richeldi
    • , Moises Selman
    • , Jeffrey J. Swigris
    • , Hiroyuki Taniguchi
    •  & Athol U. Wells
  • Research |

    After acute inflammation, epithelial stem cells retain a memory that accelerates restoration of the skin barrier during subsequent tissue damage, and this enhancement is dependent on the AIM2 inflammasome and its downstream effectors.

    • Shruti Naik
    • , Samantha B. Larsen
    • , Nicholas C. Gomez
    • , Kirill Alaverdyan
    • , Ataman Sendoel
    • , Shaopeng Yuan
    • , Lisa Polak
    • , Anita Kulukian
    • , Sophia Chai
    •  & Elaine Fuchs
  • Research | | open

    Boosting of maternal antibodies against RSV is a potential approach to protect infants from severe infection, but data from animal models is missing. Here Steff et al. test two different boosts in seropositive cattle pre-exposed to bovine RSV and show that pre-fusion F strongly boosts neutralizing responses.

    • Ann-Muriel Steff
    • , James Monroe
    • , Kristian Friedrich
    • , Sumana Chandramouli
    • , Thi Lien-Anh Nguyen
    • , Sai Tian
    • , Sarah Vandepaer
    • , Jean-François Toussaint
    •  & Andrea Carfi
  • Research | | open

    Although protein tyrosine kinases are being explored as antifibrotic agents for the treatment of systemic sclerosis, little is known about the function of counteractive protein tyrosine phosphatases in this context. Here, the authors show that PTP4A1 is highly expressed by fibroblasts from patients with systemic sclerosis and promotes TGFβ activity via SRC–ERK–SMAD3 signaling.

    • Cristiano Sacchetti
    • , Yunpeng Bai
    • , Stephanie M. Stanford
    • , Paola Di Benedetto
    • , Paola Cipriani
    • , Eugenio Santelli
    • , Sonsoles Piera-Velazquez
    • , Vladimir Chernitskiy
    • , William B. Kiosses
    • , Arnold Ceponis
    • , Klaus H. Kaestner
    • , Francesco Boin
    • , Sergio A. Jimenez
    • , Roberto Giacomelli
    • , Zhong-Yin Zhang
    •  & Nunzio Bottini
  • Research | | open

    LPS is a major component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, and triggers immune responses in airway epithelium by activating TLR4. Here the authors show that LPS also activates TRPV4, thereby inducing fast defense responses such as nitric oxide production and increased ciliary beating in mice.

    • Yeranddy A. Alpizar
    • , Brett Boonen
    • , Alicia Sanchez
    • , Carole Jung
    • , Alejandro López-Requena
    • , Robbe Naert
    • , Brecht Steelant
    • , Katrien Luyts
    • , Cristina Plata
    • , Vanessa De Vooght
    • , Jeroen A. J. Vanoirbeek
    • , Victor M. Meseguer
    • , Thomas Voets
    • , Julio L. Alvarez
    • , Peter W. Hellings
    • , Peter H. M. Hoet
    • , Benoit Nemery
    • , Miguel A. Valverde
    •  & Karel Talavera
  • Research | | open

    Food allergy is an increasing public health problem. In a genome-wide scan of children diagnosed by oral food challenge, Marenholz et al. find new genetic associations underlying food allergy, implicating the immune system and the epithelial barrier.

    • Ingo Marenholz
    • , Sarah Grosche
    • , Birgit Kalb
    • , Franz Rüschendorf
    • , Katharina Blümchen
    • , Rupert Schlags
    • , Neda Harandi
    • , Mareike Price
    • , Gesine Hansen
    • , Jürgen Seidenberg
    • , Holger Röblitz
    • , Songül Yürek
    • , Sebastian Tschirner
    • , Xiumei Hong
    • , Xiaobin Wang
    • , Georg Homuth
    • , Carsten O. Schmidt
    • , Markus M. Nöthen
    • , Norbert Hübner
    • , Bodo Niggemann
    • , Kirsten Beyer
    •  & Young-Ae Lee

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