Adaptive immunity

Definition

Adaptive immunity is the protection of a host organism from a pathogen or toxin. It is mediated by B cells and T cells, and is characterized by immunological memory. Adaptive immunity is highly specific to a given antigen and is highly adaptable.

Featured

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    The authors devise an algorithm that can cluster T cell receptor (TCR) sequences sharing the same specificity, predict the HLA restriction of these TCR clusters on the basis of subjects’ genotypes and help to identify specific peptide major histocompatibility complex ligands.

    • Jacob Glanville
    • , Huang Huang
    • , Allison Nau
    • , Olivia Hatton
    • , Lisa E. Wagar
    • , Florian Rubelt
    • , Xuhuai Ji
    • , Arnold Han
    • , Sheri M. Krams
    • , Christina Pettus
    • , Nikhil Haas
    • , Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn
    • , Alessandro Sette
    • , Scott D. Boyd
    • , Thomas J. Scriba
    • , Olivia M. Martinez
    •  & Mark M. Davis
  • Research |

    The authors characterize epitope-specific T cell repertoires, identify shared and recognizable features of TCRs, and develop tools to classify antigen specificity on the basis of sequence analysis.

    • Pradyot Dash
    • , Andrew J. Fiore-Gartland
    • , Tomer Hertz
    • , George C. Wang
    • , Shalini Sharma
    • , Aisha Souquette
    • , Jeremy Chase Crawford
    • , E. Bridie Clemens
    • , Thi H. O. Nguyen
    • , Katherine Kedzierska
    • , Nicole L. La Gruta
    • , Philip Bradley
    •  & Paul G. Thomas
  • Reviews |

    Why are newborns more vulnerable to infection? Here, the authors explain that it is not the immaturity of the immune system per se, but the unique regulation of immune responses in early life that limits immunity to infection yet allows safe development in utero and the accommodation of microbial colonization at birth.

    • Xiaoming Zhang
    • , Dania Zhivaki
    •  & Richard Lo-Man
  • Research |

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is now commonplace in the clinic, yet such reagents can elicit unwanted side effects due to interactions with Fcγ receptors. Georgiou and colleagues have engineered mAbs that lack such FcγR interactions but retain the ability to activate complement and show that these modified mAbs have efficacious effector function.

    • Chang-Han Lee
    • , Gabrielle Romain
    • , Wupeng Yan
    • , Makiko Watanabe
    • , Wissam Charab
    • , Biliana Todorova
    • , Jiwon Lee
    • , Kendra Triplett
    • , Moses Donkor
    • , Oana I Lungu
    • , Anja Lux
    • , Nicholas Marshall
    • , Margaret A Lindorfer
    • , Odile Richard-Le Goff
    • , Bianca Balbino
    • , Tae Hyun Kang
    • , Hidetaka Tanno
    • , George Delidakis
    • , Corrine Alford
    • , Ronald P Taylor
    • , Falk Nimmerjahn
    • , Navin Varadarajan
    • , Pierre Bruhns
    • , Yan Jessie Zhang
    •  & George Georgiou

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    Thymocytes must undergo positive selection to survive and differentiate. This process is regulated by the TCR-sensitive protein CHMPS by preventing Bcl2 oxidation and degradation.

    • Gerald P Morris
    •  & Stephen M Hedrick
    Nature Immunology 18, 713–714
  • Research Highlights |

    Ashley Moffett describes a 1995 paper by Colonna and Samaridis that provided the stiumulus to understanding the link between NK cells and pre-eclampsia.

    • Ashley Moffett
  • News and Views |

    Flaviviruses stimulate cross-reactive immune responses that may reduce or exacerbate manifestations of subsequent flavivirus infection. Recent work demonstrates that cross-reactive T cells protect against Zika in HLA transgenic mice, a key step in the development of safe and effective vaccines.

    • Matthew Collins
    •  & Aravinda de Silva
  • News and Views |

    M cells sample gut lumenal antigens and microbes to induce gut immune responses. A novel population of stromal cell—the M cell inducers—are essential for sustaining M cell differentiation and bacteria-specific production of immunoglobulin A to maintain the gut–immune system symbiosis.

    • Gabrielle T Belz
    •  & Francisca F Almeida
    Nature Immunology 18, 601–602