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Adaptive immunity is the protection of a host organism from a pathogen or toxin. It is mediated by B cells and T cells, and is characterized by immunological memory. Adaptive immunity is highly specific to a given antigen and is highly adaptable.
The authors devise an algorithm that can cluster T cell receptor (TCR) sequences sharing the same specificity, predict the HLA restriction of these TCR clusters on the basis of subjects’ genotypes and help to identify specific peptide major histocompatibility complex ligands.
Why are newborns more vulnerable to infection? Here, the authors explain that it is not the immaturity of the immune system per se, but the unique regulation of immune responses in early life that limits immunity to infection yet allows safe development in utero and the accommodation of microbial colonization at birth.
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is now commonplace in the clinic, yet such reagents can elicit unwanted side effects due to interactions with Fcγ receptors. Georgiou and colleagues have engineered mAbs that lack such FcγR interactions but retain the ability to activate complement and show that these modified mAbs have efficacious effector function.
Flaviviruses stimulate cross-reactive immune responses that may reduce or exacerbate manifestations of subsequent flavivirus infection. Recent work demonstrates that cross-reactive T cells protect against Zika in HLA transgenic mice, a key step in the development of safe and effective vaccines.
M cells sample gut lumenal antigens and microbes to induce gut immune responses. A novel population of stromal cell—the M cell inducers—are essential for sustaining M cell differentiation and bacteria-specific production of immunoglobulin A to maintain the gut–immune system symbiosis.