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Infectious diseases also known as contagious diseases, transmissible diseases or communicable diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that infect a host organism and can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one organism to another.
This Review examines accumulating evidence that translation arrest and stress granule formation can have antiviral properties through several mechanisms that are not limited to direct effects on the translation of viral proteins.
Analysis of a comprehensive database of mammalian host–virus relationships reveals that both the total number of viruses that infect a given species and the proportion likely to be zoonotic are predictable and that this enables identification of mammalian species and geographic locations where novel zoonoses are likely to be found.
Antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) can increase Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in vitro, but their role in vivo remains largely unknown. Here, the authors show that pre-existing immunity from a 2.8 years earlier DENV infection does not affect ZIKV pathogenesis in macaques but instead shortens Zika viremia.
The inflammasome receptor Nlrp9b defends against enteric viruses by interacting with double-stranded viral RNA-bound helicase Dhx9, triggering gasdermin-D-dependent pyroptotic cell death of infected cells and secretion of Il-18.
In many countries, the success of misinformation, alternative facts or fake news is promoting a climate of science denial, where false claims such as vaccination causing autism can spread. Learning lessons from behavioural studies can help advocate for vaccination in the face of vaccine refusers and deniers.
The WHO's plans to bolster global vector control measures blend audacious goals with a sensible approach that could save lives and stimulate economic growth and development in many of the world's poorest nations.
Nitric oxide synthase has long been associated with control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. However, new work reveals that instead of directing an antibacterial killing response, nitric oxide is critical for restraining granulocytic inflammation, which can provide a nutrient-rich niche for increased bacterial growth.