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Immune evasion is a strategy used by pathogenic organisms and tumours to evade a host's immune response to maximize their probability of being transmitted to a fresh host or to continue growing, respectively.
In this Review, Yarchoan et al. discuss the potential of targeting tumour-specific antigens (neoantigens) to increase antitumour immunity and present a framework for personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the identification and specific targeting of individual tumour neoantigens.
A recent article published in Nature describes a novel genetic mechanism of immune evasion in a number of cancers that is caused by structural variants (SVs) disrupting the 3′ regulatory region of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1).