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Antimicrobial responses refer to any host process triggered by the exposure to a microorganism that results in a change in state, activity or viability of the microorganism – for example, movement, secretion, enzyme production or gene expression.
This Review examines accumulating evidence that translation arrest and stress granule formation can have antiviral properties through several mechanisms that are not limited to direct effects on the translation of viral proteins.
Prolonged NOD2 ligand engagement induces tolerance and attenuated NOD2 signalling, but the molecular mechanisms leading to this tolerance induction are unclear. Here the authors show that the degradation of a NOD2 adaptor, RIP2, by the E3 ligase ZNRF4 is essential for the down-regulation of NOD2 signalling.
Several microbes produce proteases that cleave antibodies to evade immune recognition. Humans seem to have a receptor on myeloid cells that detects the presence of cleaved antibodies and activates innate immunity.
Antibiotic therapy is a cornerstone of contemporary medicine. Resistance testing is the gold standard for selecting antibiotics, but in some cases they are surprisingly ineffective. A study now shows that pathogens can form a subset of cells which survive, and even continue to grow in the face of antibiotics.