Biological sciences

Definition

Biological sciences encompasses all the divisions of natural sciences examining various aspects of vital processes. The concept includes anatomy, physiology, cell biology, biochemistry and biophysics, and covers all organisms from microorganisms, animals to plants.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    The intestinal lymphatic vasculature has a range of functions, from maintenance of interstitial fluid balance to transport of antigens, cells, dietary lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. In this Review, Petrova and Bernier-Latmani provide an in-depth overview of intestinal lymphatics, including their roles in human diseases.

    • Jeremiah Bernier-Latmani
    •  & Tatiana V. Petrova
  • Reviews |

    Covalent DNA–protein crosslinks (DPCs) are induced by various compounds, which include widely used anticancer drugs, and are highly cytotoxic. Recent studies have revealed the mechanisms and the regulation of DPC repair pathways and suggest that components of these pathways can serve as targets for anticancer therapies.

    • Julian Stingele
    • , Roberto Bellelli
    •  & Simon J. Boulton
  • Reviews |

    Undescended testis — known as cryptorchidism — is one of the most common congenital abnormalities observed in boys, and is one of the few known risk factors for testicular cancer. The key factors that contribute to the occurrence of cryptorchidism remain elusive and a broad range of putative risk factors have been evaluated, but their plausibility is still in question.

    • Jason K. Gurney
    • , Katherine A. McGlynn
    • , James Stanley
    • , Tony Merriman
    • , Virginia Signal
    • , Caroline Shaw
    • , Richard Edwards
    • , Lorenzo Richiardi
    • , John Hutson
    •  & Diana Sarfati
  • Reviews |

    Studying nature to reveal the mechanisms of special wetting phenomena in biological systems can effectively inspire the design and fabrication of functional interfacial materials with superwettability. In this Review, the historical development, new phenomena and emerging applications of superwettability systems are discussed.

    • Mingjie Liu
    • , Shutao Wang
    •  & Lei Jiang
  • Reviews |

    Patients receiving anticancer therapies based on immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB) often experience clinical benefits from such treatments, but unconventional patterns of response can be observed, emphasizing the importance of using a specific approach to evaluating responses to immunotherapy. Herein, the authors review the biological mechanisms underlying the response patterns associated with ICB, describe strategies for the assessments of such responses, and highlight the ongoing efforts to identify biomarkers to guide treatment with ICB.

    • Mizuki Nishino
    • , Nikhil H. Ramaiya
    • , Hiroto Hatabu
    •  & F. Stephen Hodi
  • Research |

    Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy analysis of the mechanotransduction channel NOMPC reveals that it contains a bundle of four helical spring-shaped ankyrin repeat domains that undergo motion, potentially allowing mechanical movement of the cytoskeleton to be coupled to the opening of the channel.

    • Peng Jin
    • , David Bulkley
    • , Yanmeng Guo
    • , Wei Zhang
    • , Zhenhao Guo
    • , Walter Huynh
    • , Shenping Wu
    • , Shan Meltzer
    • , Tong Cheng
    • , Lily Yeh Jan
    • , Yuh-Nung Jan
    •  & Yifan Cheng

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