Cancer

Definition

Cancer is a complex disease in which cells in a specific tissue are no longer fully responsive to the signals within the tissue that regulate cellular differentiation, survival, proliferation and death. As a result, these cells accumulate within the tissue, causing local damage and inflammation. There are over 200 different types of cancer.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and comprises two major subtypes — oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma — which are epidemiologically and biologically distinct. In this Primer, Cunningham and colleagues describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of oesophageal cancer.

    • Elizabeth C. Smyth
    • , Jesper Lagergren
    • , Rebecca C. Fitzgerald
    • , Florian Lordick
    • , Manish A. Shah
    • , Pernilla Lagergren
    •  & David Cunningham
  • Reviews |

    Virtually all successful treatments of cancer either create, restore or enhance the antitumour immune response. Therefore, the specific features of the immune microenvironment, both before and after treatment, are important determinants of patients' outcomes. In this Review, the authors describe the influence of the immunological characteristics of the tumour microenvironment on responses to treatment in patients with a variety of cancers.

    • Wolf H. Fridman
    • , Laurence Zitvogel
    • , Catherine Sautès–Fridman
    •  & Guido Kroemer
  • Reviews |

    This Opinion article discusses recent studies that have provided new insights into the mechanisms of common fragile site instability and the resulting genomic effects, which include the generation of focal copy number alterations that affect the genomic landscape of many cancers.

    • Thomas W. Glover
    • , Thomas E. Wilson
    •  & Martin F. Arlt
    Nature Reviews Cancer 17, 489–501
  • Reviews |

    Our understanding of mesothelioma pathobiology has increased dramatically in the past 5 years, with an improvement in our knowledge of mesothelioma genetics, epigenetics, tumour microenvironment and immunobiology. This Review discusses these advances and how they might affect therapeutic strategies.

    • Timothy A. Yap
    • , Joachim G. Aerts
    • , Sanjay Popat
    •  & Dean A. Fennell
    Nature Reviews Cancer 17, 475–488

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