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Metabolic labelling can be used to simultaneously tag peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide and capsular polysaccharide of live gut bacteria, and to label peptidoglycan in vivo, revealing host–bacteria interactions within the living mammalian host.
This Review examines accumulating evidence that translation arrest and stress granule formation can have antiviral properties through several mechanisms that are not limited to direct effects on the translation of viral proteins.
Germinal centers generate high-affinity memory B cells. Qi and colleagues identify a precursor of memory B cells in germinal centers and demonstrate that the cytokine IL-9-derived from follicular helper T cells is important for their development into full-fledged memory cells.
The release of membrane-bound vesicles from cells is being increasingly recognized as a mechanism of intercellular communication. In this Review, Raab-Traub and Dittmer discuss the roles that extracellular vesicles have during virus infection.
Liu and colleagues show that specification of the dendritic-cell lineage occurs in parallel with specification of the myeloid and lymphoid lineages in or around the hematopoietic-stem-cell stage, starting as a lineage bias defined by transcriptional programs that correlate with the combinatorial dose of IRF8 and PU.1.
Pittet and collaborators show that macrophages can remove anti-PD1 antibodies from T cells, blunting their response, whereas Weissman and colleagues demonstrate that macrophages also express PD1 on their surface, which impairs their phagocytic activity.