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Virology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases, including the distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of viruses.
Large dsDNA viruses either replicate in or disrupt the nucleus to gain access to host RNA polymerases, or they rely on virus-encoded, packaged RNA polymerases. Here, the authors show that Noumeavirus replicates in the cytoplasm and relies on a transient recruitment of nuclear proteins to initiate replication.
Cell culture infection models help to develop antiviral agents, but animal models are required to understand complex virus–host interactions and the development of immune therapies. Although identification of the HBV uptake receptor enabled establishing cell lines that replicate HBV from its natural transcription template, animal models supporting the full HBV life cycle are still lacking.