Virology

Definition

Virology is the scientific discipline concerned with the study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases, including the distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of viruses.

Featured

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research |

    Genome sequencing of Zika virus samples from infected patients and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Florida shows that the virus was probably introduced into the United States on multiple occasions, and that the Caribbean is the most likely source.

    • Nathan D. Grubaugh
    • , Jason T. Ladner
    • , Moritz U. G. Kraemer
    • , Gytis Dudas
    • , Amanda L. Tan
    • , Karthik Gangavarapu
    • , Michael R. Wiley
    • , Stephen White
    • , Julien Thézé
    • , Diogo M. Magnani
    • , Karla Prieto
    • , Daniel Reyes
    • , Andrea M. Bingham
    • , Lauren M. Paul
    • , Refugio Robles-Sikisaka
    • , Glenn Oliveira
    • , Darryl Pronty
    • , Carolyn M. Barcellona
    • , Hayden C. Metsky
    • , Mary Lynn Baniecki
    • , Kayla G. Barnes
    • , Bridget Chak
    • , Catherine A. Freije
    • , Adrianne Gladden-Young
    • , Andreas Gnirke
    • , Cynthia Luo
    • , Bronwyn MacInnis
    • , Christian B. Matranga
    • , Daniel J. Park
    • , James Qu
    • , Stephen F. Schaffner
    • , Christopher Tomkins-Tinch
    • , Kendra L. West
    • , Sarah M. Winnicki
    • , Shirlee Wohl
    • , Nathan L. Yozwiak
    • , Joshua Quick
    • , Joseph R. Fauver
    • , Kamran Khan
    • , Shannon E. Brent
    • , Robert C. Reiner Jr
    • , Paola N. Lichtenberger
    • , Michael J. Ricciardi
    • , Varian K. Bailey
    • , David I. Watkins
    • , Marshall R. Cone
    • , Edgar W. Kopp IV
    • , Kelly N. Hogan
    • , Andrew C. Cannons
    • , Reynald Jean
    • , Andrew J. Monaghan
    • , Robert F. Garry
    • , Nicholas J. Loman
    • , Nuno R. Faria
    • , Mario C. Porcelli
    • , Chalmers Vasquez
    • , Elyse R. Nagle
    • , Derek A. T. Cummings
    • , Danielle Stanek
    • , Andrew Rambaut
    • , Mariano Sanchez-Lockhart
    • , Pardis C. Sabeti
    • , Leah D. Gillis
    • , Scott F. Michael
    • , Trevor Bedford
    • , Oliver G. Pybus
    • , Sharon Isern
    • , Gustavo Palacios
    •  & Kristian G. Andersen
  • Protocols |

    This multiplex PCR enrichment protocol enables sequencing of Zika and other viral genomes of low abundance from clinical samples using the Illumina platform, or the portable MinION sequencer, facilitating direct application in field situations.

    • Joshua Quick
    • , Nathan D Grubaugh
    • , Steven T Pullan
    • , Ingra M Claro
    • , Andrew D Smith
    • , Karthik Gangavarapu
    • , Glenn Oliveira
    • , Refugio Robles-Sikisaka
    • , Thomas F Rogers
    • , Nathan A Beutler
    • , Dennis R Burton
    • , Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez
    • , Jaqueline Goes de Jesus
    • , Marta Giovanetti
    • , Sarah C Hill
    • , Allison Black
    • , Trevor Bedford
    • , Miles W Carroll
    • , Marcio Nunes
    • , Luiz Carlos Alcantara Jr.
    • , Ester C Sabino
    • , Sally A Baylis
    • , Nuno R Faria
    • , Matthew Loose
    • , Jared T Simpson
    • , Oliver G Pybus
    • , Kristian G Andersen
    •  & Nicholas J Loman
    Nature Protocols 12, 1261–1276
  • Research | | open

    MxA (myxovirus resistance protein A) is a viral restriction factor whose activity depends on self-assembly into polymeric rings and helical filaments. Here the authors reveal the conformational movements involved in generating torque within polymeric MxA molecules and the dynamic conformational changes that occur upon GTP loading and hydrolysis.

    • Yang Chen
    • , Lei Zhang
    • , Laura Graf
    • , Bing Yu
    • , Yue Liu
    • , Georg Kochs
    • , Yongfang Zhao
    •  & Song Gao
  • Research | | open

    Viruses trigger potent cytotoxic T cell responses, whereas anti-tumour immunity has been difficult to establish. Here the authors engineer a replicating viral delivery system for tumour-associated antigens, which induces alarmin release, innate activation and protective anti-tumour immunity in mice.

    • Sandra M. Kallert
    • , Stephanie Darbre
    • , Weldy V. Bonilla
    • , Mario Kreutzfeldt
    • , Nicolas Page
    • , Philipp Müller
    • , Matthias Kreuzaler
    • , Min Lu
    • , Stéphanie Favre
    • , Florian Kreppel
    • , Max Löhning
    • , Sanjiv A. Luther
    • , Alfred Zippelius
    • , Doron Merkler
    •  & Daniel D. Pinschewer
  • Research | | open

    The WHO targets measles elimination by 2020, a goal that relies on high vaccination coverage. Here, Takahashi et al. identify ‘coldspots’ in the African Great Lakes region where measles vaccine coverage is below 80%, suggesting that these regions should be targeted in future vaccination campaigns.

    • Saki Takahashi
    • , C. Jessica E. Metcalf
    • , Matthew J. Ferrari
    • , Andrew J. Tatem
    •  & Justin Lessler

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    Flaviviruses stimulate cross-reactive immune responses that may reduce or exacerbate manifestations of subsequent flavivirus infection. Recent work demonstrates that cross-reactive T cells protect against Zika in HLA transgenic mice, a key step in the development of safe and effective vaccines.

    • Matthew Collins
    •  & Aravinda de Silva
  • Comments and Opinion |

    We asked microbiologist and NASA astronaut Kate Rubins about her time on the International Space Station, the challenges of working with bugs in space, and what's next for science that is out of this world.

    • Emily White
  • Editorial |

    From roles in the health, nutrition and performance of humans during spaceflight, through to the question of life on other worlds, microbiology has fundamental contributions to make to our exploration of the cosmos.

  • News and Views |

    Evolutionary trees constructed using both newly sequenced and previously available Zika virus genomes reveal how the recent outbreak arose in Brazil and spread across the Americas.

    • Michael Worobey
  • News and Views |

    RIPK3 is a well-known mediator of the necroptosis cell death pathway, which is an important antiviral defence mechanism. In an unexpected twist, RIPK3 has now been shown to also drive neuroprotective inflammation in the central nervous system during West Nile virus infection in a cell-death-independent manner.

    • Katherine B. Ragan
    •  & Jason W. Upton