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This protocol describes flow cytometric identification of viral translation-competent reservoirs, based on concurrent detection of cellular HIV Gagpol mRNA by in situ RNA hybridization combined with antibody staining for the HIV Gag protein.
HIV insertions in hematopoietic cells are enriched in BACH2 or MLK2 genes, but the selective advantages conferred are unknown. Here, the authors show that BACH2 and additionally STAT5B are activated by viral insertions, generating chimeric mRNAs specifically enriched in T regulatory cells favoring their persistence.
A recent study using a humanized mouse model shows that HIV-1 can persist in macrophages during antiretroviral therapy (ART), and suggests that macrophages may represent an obstacle to efforts to cure HIV-1 infection.
Deep-sequencing of lymphoid tissue samples from patients infected with HIV who were undergoing suppressive antiretroviral therapy reveals ongoing replication in lymphoid tissues and replenishment of the latent reservoir.