Reviews & Analysis

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  • Exercise training can induce robust changes in mitochondria that are beneficial for a range of metabolic health outcomes. However, a recent study suggests there might be an upper limit to the amount of high-intensity training that can be tolerated before disruptions to mitochondrial function and whole-body metabolic homeostasis occur.

    • John A. Hawley
    • David J. Bishop
    News & Views
  • More than 7,000 clinical trials are currently ongoing involving new drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This Review summarizes the novel drugs in development for T2DM that improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate insulin secretion or the incretin axis, or suppress hepatic glucose production.

    • Leigh Perreault
    • Jay S. Skyler
    • Julio Rosenstock
    Review Article
  • Obesity is linked to dysregulated cellular energetics in neoplastic and non-neoplastic cells in the tumour microenvironment. Here, Brown discusses the interdependence of metabolic pathways of oestrogen production in breast tissue and the obesity-related mechanisms that promote breast cancer growth.

    • Kristy A. Brown
    Review Article
  • Optoacoustic imaging enables the non-invasive and label-free imaging of the structure and function of organs, tissues and cells. This Review highlights key progress with optoacoustic imaging technology for applications in endocrinology and metabolism, with a specific focus on multispectral optoacoustic tomography and raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy.

    • Angelos Karlas
    • Miguel A. Pleitez
    • Vasilis Ntziachristos
    Review Article
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are now an established cornerstone of cancer therapeutics; however, ICIs are associated with toxicities in various organs, termed immune-related adverse events. This Review highlights current understanding in ICI-induced endocrinopathies, including epidemiology, aetiology, clinical manifestations and approaches to treatment.

    • Jordan J. Wright
    • Alvin C. Powers
    • Douglas B. Johnson
    Review Article
  • Limited pharmacological treatments for uterine leiomyomata (fibroids) are available. Now, two phase III trials lasting 24 weeks showed marked reduction in leiomyoma-related heavy menstrual bleeding with relugolix, a new orally active gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist with add-back oestrogen (to limit bone loss) and progestin (to limit endometrial changes from unopposed oestrogen).

    • Donna D. Baird
    • Quaker E. Harmon
    News & Views
  • Understanding mineralized tissues, such as bone and cartilage, in health and disease requires a thorough knowledge of their structures. This Perspective proposes a new imaging and characterization strategy for mineralized tissue research that utilizes focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    • Steve Weiner
    • Emeline Raguin
    • Ron Shahar
  • This Review focuses on physiological and pathological aspects of the hormonal regulation of biomineralization, which is crucial for skeletal health during adulthood, fetal and neonatal development and pregnancy. The role of mineral intake, serum concentrations of mineral and hormonal regulators of biomineralization are highlighted.

    • Andrew Arnold
    • Elaine Dennison
    • Rajesh V. Thakker
    Review Article
  • It is commonly accepted that dietary habits and cardiometabolic disorders are connected to the composition of the gut microbiota. However, can we really generalize and predict health by screening faecal microorganisms? A study has taken the plunge and identified a vast range of correlations supporting this possibility.

    • Patrice D. Cani
    • Matthias Van Hul
    News & Views
  • White adipocyte metabolism is important for the regulation of systemic metabolism and is often dysregulated in various conditions, such as cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this Review, Langin and colleagues provide an overview of lipid metabolism in white adipocytes and the related metabolism of glucose and discuss how these pathways provide therapeutic targets in metabolic disorders.

    • Pauline Morigny
    • Jeremie Boucher
    • Dominique Langin
    Review Article
  • This Review summarizes the evidence from clinical trials for the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of thyroid cancer. The data from the experience with these drugs in clinical practice are also discussed, and factors that can help clinicians decide when to start or whether to continue tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy are considered.

    • Matti L. Gild
    • Venessa H. M. Tsang
    • Bruce G. Robinson
    Review Article
  • Alterations of RET kinase have been found in diverse thyroid cancer subtypes. This Review describes the RET mutations and gene fusions that can occur in thyroid cancer and highlights specific RET kinase inhibitors that are in clinical and preclinical use.

    • Domenico Salvatore
    • Massimo Santoro
    • Martin Schlumberger
    Review Article
  • This Review provides an update on the clinical management of MEN1-related tumours. Epidemiology, the clinical picture, diagnostic work-up and main lines of treatment for MEN1-related tumours are summarized. Controversial therapeutic aspects and issues that still need to be addressed are also discussed.

    • Abdallah Al-Salameh
    • Guillaume Cadiot
    • Philippe Chanson
    Review Article
  • Complex phenotypic and genetic clustering of individuals who are potentially at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can enable the identification of individuals who are likely to develop T2DM and vascular complications. Precision medicine for prediabetes should improve prevention programmes and reduce mortality.

    • Amélie Bonnefond
    • Philippe Froguel
    News & Views
  • This Review discusses the susceptibility of the fetal immune system to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and the consequences on pancreatic islet development, which might influence the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals affected by IUGR. The potential for immunomodulation as a therapeutic approach to treat IUGR-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus will also be discussed.

    • Thea N. Golden
    • Rebecca A. Simmons
    Review Article
  • As we approach the 30th anniversary of the 1991 Wingspread Conference on endocrine disruption, this Perspective addresses some historical points regarding the advent of the endocrine disruption field and the conceptual changes that endocrine disruption brought about.

    • Ana M. Soto
    • Cheryl M. Schaeberle
    • Carlos Sonnenschein
  • This Review summarizes the physiological functions, pharmacology and clinical studies of G protein-coupled receptors that are specific for lipid metabolite ligands. The challenges associated with the clinical development of therapeutics for type 2 diabetes mellitus that target these G protein-coupled receptors are also discussed.

    • Julien Ghislain
    • Vincent Poitout
    Review Article
  • This Review highlights how obesity and impaired metabolic health increase complications and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and summarizes the consequences of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 for organ function. In addition, there is a discussion on the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for the obesity pandemic.

    • Norbert Stefan
    • Andreas L. Birkenfeld
    • Matthias B. Schulze
    Review Article
  • This Review focuses on the current understanding of the molecular and cellular pathology of diabetic retinopathy. The primary focus is on the cellular signalling between the neuronal and vascular retina that promotes formation of the inner blood–retinal barrier of the retinal vasculature as an important point of intervention.

    • David A. Antonetti
    • Paolo S. Silva
    • Alan W. Stitt
    Review Article