Review Articles

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  • Biomass and plastic share structural similarities in their composition and types of bond linkage between their monomeric units. Reviewing their catalytic conversion technologies in a unified angle provides new insights and opportunities for future advances.

    • Kyungho Lee
    • Yaxuan Jing
    • Ning Yan
    Review Article
  • Fused-ring electron acceptors are excellent n-type organic semiconductors with outstanding optoelectronic conversion and electron transport abilities. This Review highlights the fundamental principles, design strategies and versatile applications of fused-ring electron acceptors in photovoltaics, electronics and photonics.

    • Jiayu Wang
    • Peiyao Xue
    • Xiaowei Zhan
    Review Article
  • Hydrogels have been found to replicate the gel-like properties of many intracellular environments and are thus of great interest in the construction of artificial cells. This Review highlights how hydrogels are currently used and explores avenues for their use in the construction of next-generation artificial cells.

    • Matthew E. Allen
    • James W. Hindley
    • Yuval Elani
    Review Article
  • Cryopreservation is a platform technology that underpins the delivery of complex therapies to patients and enables fundamental cell biology by allowing the banking and recovery of viable cells. This Review summarizes the role, and opportunities, for chemistry-driven approaches to cryopreservation, beyond formulation, to the design and discovery of innovative solutions.

    • Kathryn A. Murray
    • Matthew I. Gibson
    Review Article
  • The construction of the highly valuable C(sp3)–N bond motif in a generalizable, selective, robust manner has been in demand for decades. This Review highlights the new and rising avenues towards this goal in the context of visible light-induced chemistry.

    • Mónica Rivas
    • Vitalii Palchykov
    • Vladimir Gevorgyan
    Review Article
  • Chiral metal halide semiconductors are a new class of hybrid organic–inorganic materials that combine the properties of small chiral organic molecules with those of extended inorganic semiconductors. This Review highlights the design, properties and emerging applications of these chiral semiconductors, with an emphasis on structure–property relationships.

    • Haipeng Lu
    • Zeev Valy Vardeny
    • Matthew C. Beard
    Review Article
  • Carboranes are heteroborane clusters that offer many unique advantages in the exploration of biologically relevant chemical space. This Review highlights the examples of where carboranes have been used in drug discovery, chemical biology and molecular imaging.

    • Anita Marfavi
    • Poya Kavianpour
    • Louis M. Rendina
    Review Article
  • Adoption of renewable energy sources will need to be accompanied by methods for energy storage. Lithium-ion batteries continue to dominate for portable electronic applications but other technologies are required for long-term and larger-scale storage. Redox flow batteries, the focus of this Review, represent one such technology.

    • Leyuan Zhang
    • Ruozhu Feng
    • Guihua Yu
    Review Article
  • Snake venom contains a diversity of bioactive compounds. This Review highlights the complex chemistry of snake venom and shows how venom can be used to derive new therapeutic drugs.

    • Ana L. Oliveira
    • Matilde F. Viegas
    • Pedro A. Fernandes
    Review Article
  • In this Review, we chart recent advances in the use of chemistry to control droplet motility in lipid solutions. The discussion includes a highlight on the interplay between chemical reactivity that occurs at the molecular level and motile behaviour that emerges at larger length scales.

    • Dhanya Babu
    • Nathalie Katsonis
    • Alexander Ryabchun
    Review Article
  • Radical reaction pathways have evolved sufficiently that C(sp3)–H bonds may now be viewed as strategic ‘reagents’ for bond formation in synthetic organic chemistry. This Review highlights the diverse approaches for C(sp3)–H functionalization and cross-coupling reactions, emphasizing radical-relay reactions.

    • Dung L. Golden
    • Sung-Eun Suh
    • Shannon S. Stahl
    Review Article
  • Reactions that form C–N bonds are key in the synthesis of molecules used in fertilizers, synthetic materials, pharmaceuticals and more. This Review examines the emerging area of heterogeneous electrocatalytic C–N bond formation using abundant starting materials, with the eventual goal of electrifying chemical manufacturing.

    • Junnan Li
    • Yuxuan Zhang
    • Nikolay Kornienko
    Review Article
  • Dramatic innovations in surface and bulk chemistry enable MXenes to flourish in electrochemical applications. This Review analyses the recorded footprints of MXene components for energy storage, with particular attention paid to a coherent understanding of the fundamental relationship between MXene components and their qualified roles from a nuanced chemical perspective.

    • Xinliang Li
    • Zhaodong Huang
    • Chunyi Zhi
    Review Article
  • Metal–organic cages with good solubility, accessible cavities and abundant reactive sites can undergo various post-synthetic modifications to assemble into multidimensional functional materials. This Review explores current post-synthetic modification strategies used for metal–organic cages, including covalent, coordination and noncovalent methods.

    • Jinjin Liu
    • Zhifang Wang
    • Zhenjie Zhang
    Review Article
  • Creating artificial nanostructures inside living cells requires the careful design of molecules that can transform into active monomers within a complex cellular environment. This Review explores the recent development of bioresponsive precursors for the controlled formation of intracellular supramolecular assemblies.

    • Sarah Chagri
    • David Y. W. Ng
    • Tanja Weil
    Review Article
  • Disentangling the nanoscale interplay of electromagnetic near fields, heat and charge transfer in plasmon-assisted chemistry is non-trivial. We survey the techniques that enable the characterization of these properties with spatial, energetic and/or temporal resolution, with insight regarding the challenges associated when going from studying the ensemble level to single-particle measurements.

    • Emiliano Cortés
    • Roland Grzeschik
    • Sebastian Schlücker
    Review Article
  • The aim of this Review is to guide synthetic chemists through their first electrosyntheses by describing the essential aspects of the field and by sharing practical tips. The fundamentals of electroanalytical techniques are discussed as tools to elucidate mechanism and are then examined in practice using three case studies.

    • Matthew C. Leech
    • Kevin Lam
    Review Article
  • This Review summarizes advanced photocatalytic systems for value-added chemical production from renewable biomass, with specific attention on the efficient strategies for controlling the generation of key radical intermediates and their subsequent conversion towards desired chemicals.

    • Zhipeng Huang
    • Nengchao Luo
    • Feng Wang
    Review Article
  • The hole-mediated oxidation reaction controls the rate of hydrogen production from water. Currently, associated challenges of wasted holes and the consequential chemical effects have placed the greatest bottleneck in photocatalytic hydrogen production. This Review provides a critical assessment of the hole and its related phenomena in solar hydrogen production.

    • Mohammad Z. Rahman
    • Tomas Edvinsson
    • Jorge Gascon
    Review Article