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Although protein tyrosine kinases are being explored as antifibrotic agents for the treatment of systemic sclerosis, little is known about the function of counteractive protein tyrosine phosphatases in this context. Here, the authors show that PTP4A1 is highly expressed by fibroblasts from patients with systemic sclerosis and promotes TGFβ activity via SRC–ERK–SMAD3 signaling.
Romosozumab, a recently developed sclerostin inhibitor, stimulates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption, thereby markedly increasing bone mass and reducing fracture risk. But will a red flag regarding possible adverse cardiovascular events derail this promising new drug for osteoporosis?
Symptoms associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as fatigue, depression and muscle loss are often overlooked during treatment. This Perspectives article provides a framework for understanding many of these symptoms that is based on the concepts of evolutionary medicine, energy regulation and neuroendocrine–immune crosstalk.