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In this Viewpoint article, we asked four scientists working to target important, but so-called 'undruggable', proteins in cancer for their opinions on the most crucial advances, as well as the challenges and what the future holds for this important area of cancer research.
This Review describes our current understanding of the relationship between genotype and phenotype in myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) and discusses how this knowledge could be used to inform strategies to develop more effective treatments and improve clinical success.
Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and loss of the tissues supporting the teeth, which could lead to eating and speaking problems. Although some risk factors are non-modifiable (for example, genetic susceptibility), others, such as smoking, can be effectively managed.
Sex differences in behaviour and disease vulnerability are mirrored by the cellular and molecular sexual dimorphism of the brain. McCarthy and colleagues review findings that have highlighted the roles of inflammation and epigenetics in sex-specific brain differentiation and function.
Pittet and collaborators show that macrophages can remove anti-PD1 antibodies from T cells, blunting their response, whereas Weissman and colleagues demonstrate that macrophages also express PD1 on their surface, which impairs their phagocytic activity.
This article discusses the impact of new drugs on the market for multiple sclerosis, including the recently approved immunomodulatory drug ocrelizumab and drugs in development such as sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators and neurorestorative agents.