Review Articles

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  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly used as anti-cancer treatments; however, their use can be associated with the development of immune-related adverse events, including acute kidney injury. This Review describes the symptoms, biochemical signs and possible underlying mechanisms of immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated acute kidney injury, and proposes an approach to its diagnosis and management.

    • Ben Sprangers
    • David E. Leaf
    • Mark A. Perazella
    Review Article
  • The use of peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be advantageous compared with haemodialysis treatment, although several barriers limit its broad implementation. This review examines the epidemiology of peritoneal dialysis (PD) outcomes, including clinical, patient-reported and surrogate PD outcomes.

    • Aminu K. Bello
    • Ikechi G. Okpechi
    • David W. Johnson
    Review Article
  • Low nephron number is a risk factor for the development of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and kidney failure. This Review describes the mechanisms that modulate nephrogenesis and the timing of nephrogenesis cessation, focusing on environmental and intrinsic pathways that may be manipulated to enhance nephron endowment in susceptible individuals.

    • Alison J. Perl
    • Meredith P. Schuh
    • Raphael Kopan
    Review Article
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, the authors examine CKD-associated risk factors for CVD and consider the prediction and management of CVD risk in patients with CKD, including research and implementation gaps.

    • Kunihiro Matsushita
    • Shoshana H. Ballew
    • Rajiv Agarwal
    Review Article
  • Sterile inflammation triggered by activation of the innate immune system is an important driver of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated cardiovascular disease. Here, Speer et al. summarize current understanding of the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of CKD and CKD-associated cardiovascular disease, and how these insights may translate into novel therapeutic strategies.

    • Thimoteus Speer
    • Stefanie Dimmeler
    • Paul M Ridker
    Review Article
  • Effective vaccination strategies are crucial to mitigate the high risk of infection-associated morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney failure. Here, the authors examine vaccine-induced immunity in these patients, in particular their responses to COVID-19 vaccination, in the context of the immune impairment induced by kidney dysfunction and the use of immunosuppressive medications.

    • Nina Babel
    • Christian Hugo
    • Timm H. Westhoff
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors provide an overview of the roles of miRNAs in the development of chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury and allograft injury. They also discuss the utilization of miRNAs as biomarkers and their potential as therapeutic targets in kidney disease.

    • Nassim Mahtal
    • Olivia Lenoir
    • Pierre-Louis Tharaux
    Review Article
  • Cellular senescence has beneficial functions in embryonic development, wound healing and tumour suppression but can also be maladaptive, contributing to cancer development and disease. This Review describes the mechanisms, hallmarks and consequences of senescence, as well as the therapeutic potential of senescence-targeting interventions.

    • Weijun Huang
    • LaTonya J. Hickson
    • Lilach O. Lerman
    Review Article
  • Alloimmune T cell responses have a crucial role in graft rejection. Here, the authors examine the factors that regulate T cell activation, differentiation and function in secondary lymphoid organs and in the graft, including the different pathways of allorecognition, innate–adaptive immunity crosstalk and the role of survival cytokines.

    • Charlotte Duneton
    • Pamela D. Winterberg
    • Mandy L. Ford
    Review Article
  • Our understanding of nephrogenesis has been aided by studies that have compared features of human and mouse nephrogenesis, and by technological advances in single-cell omics and high-resolution imaging techniques. This Review describes current understanding of nephron patterning, focusing on the processes by which nephron progenitors are recruited into the developing nephron.

    • Jack Schnell
    • MaryAnne Achieng
    • Nils Olof Lindström
    Review Article
  • The interplay between immunological and metabolic processes is important in a variety of processes. This Review describes how changes in lipid and energy metabolism, driven by receptors of the innate immune system, contribute to the response of tubule epithelial cells to injury and the functional consequences of these intersecting pathways in kidney health and disease.

    • Sanne van der Rijt
    • Jaklien C. Leemans
    • Alessandra Tammaro
    Review Article
  • The fibrogenic niche is a unique tissue microenvironment that promotes fibroblast activation in organ fibrosis. This Review discusses the composition, function and mechanisms of action of the fibrogenic niche in kidney fibrosis, as well as the potential implications of the fibrogenic niche hypothesis for the future diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases.

    • Li Li
    • Haiyan Fu
    • Youhua Liu
    Review Article
  • The cyclic GMP–AMP synthase (cGAS)–stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway not only is involved in host defence against infection but can lead to immune dysregulation. Here, the authors examine the biology and biochemistry of cGAS–STING and discuss its role in disease and potential approaches to therapeutic targeting.

    • Sladjana Skopelja-Gardner
    • Jie An
    • Keith B. Elkon
    Review Article
  • Hypoxia-dependent changes in cellular metabolism have important implications for the effective functioning of multiple immune cell subtypes. This Review describes the inputs that shape the hypoxic response in individual cell types and contexts, and the implications of this response for cellular metabolism and associated alterations in immune cell function.

    • Cormac T. Taylor
    • Carsten C. Scholz
    Review Article
  • Meaningful involvement of patients in clinical trial design could lead to improvements in participant recruitment and retention, the uptake of the tested intervention and the impact of the findings. Here, the authors discuss the involvement of patients at all stages of trial design.

    • Allison Tong
    • Nicole Scholes-Robertson
    • Jonathan C. Craig
    Review Article
  • In this Review, the authors discuss the roles of extracellular vesicles in kidney physiology and disease as well as the beneficial effects of stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in preclinical models of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. They also highlight current and future clinical applications of extracellular vesicles in kidney diseases.

    • Cristina Grange
    • Benedetta Bussolati
    Review Article
  • Chronic kidney disease is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, such as heart failure. Here, the authors examine myocardial metabolic remodelling in chronic kidney disease, including changes in energy substrate use, mitochondrial dysfunction and the role of cardiotonic steroids, and discuss potential metabolic therapies.

    • Nikayla Patel
    • Muhammad Magdi Yaqoob
    • Dunja Aksentijevic
    Review Article
  • Understanding of the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy has improved substantially, thanks to the discovery of pathogenic circulating autoantibodies against endogenous antigens. This Review provides an overview of the immunological processes involved in the aetiopathogenesis of membranous nephropathy, including loss of immune tolerance, genetic susceptibility factors and the role of autoantibody binding in the kidney.

    • Elion Hoxha
    • Linda Reinhard
    • Rolf A. K. Stahl
    Review Article
  • Emerging evidence suggests that artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled decision support systems may have an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of kidney diseases. This Review provides an overview of AI fundamentals and the state of the art of AI-enabled decision support systems in nephrology.

    • Tyler J. Loftus
    • Benjamin Shickel
    • Azra Bihorac
    Review Article