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  • Analytes can be ionized and brought into the gas phase using electrospray ionization (ESI). Coupling ESI with mass spectrometry enables a wide range of molecules to be studied, including proteins and polymers. This Primer introduces the ESI method, describing the underlying mechanism, common variants and instrument setups.

    • Gurpur Rakesh D. Prabhu
    • Evan R. Williams
    • Pawel L. Urban
  • Mutations in mitochondrial DNA can cause several life-limiting diseases, raising interest in mitochondrial gene editing via nucleases and base editors. In this Primer, Shoop et al. discuss mitochondrial gene editing tools, analyses and limitations in the field.

    • Wendy K. Shoop
    • Sandra R. Bacman
    • Carlos T. Moraes
  • Isothermal titration calorimetry uses the heat of a reaction to study molecular interactions in solution. This Primer introduces the method, from fundamental principles and experimental set-up, to applications involving complex biological interactions.

    • Margarida Bastos
    • Olga Abian
    • Adrian Velazquez-Campoy
  • Extended reality allows users to be immersed in a virtual environment, with implications for biomedical research and applications. Yuan, Hassan et al. discuss the adoption of extended reality in biomedical research, with a focus on technical advances that overcome current limitations.

    • Jie Yuan
    • Sohail S. Hassan
    • Yichen Ding
  • Plasmon-mediated chemical reactions use nanostructure-based surface plasmons as mediators to drive chemical reactions. Zhan et al. outline the primary considerations and techniques for designing and constructing plasmonic catalysts and describe the typical methods used to characterize plasmonic catalysts and their reaction mechanisms.

    • Chao Zhan
    • Jun Yi
    • Zhong-Qun Tian
  • Behavioural genetics examines the underlying factors associated with individual differences in behaviours and capacities. In this Primer, Willoughby et al. discuss the methods used in behavioural genetics analysis, in particular twin studies, genome-wide association studies and statistical modelling.

    • Emily A. Willoughby
    • Tinca J. C. Polderman
    • Brian B. Boutwell
  • Single-cell pathogen diagnostic tools are increasingly being used to identify and monitor bacterial infections and antimicrobial resistance. In this Primer, Li et al. discuss the assessment, design and implementation of single-cell pathogen diagnostics.

    • Hui Li
    • Kuangwen Hsieh
    • Tza-Huei Wang
  • Molecular quantitative trait locus (molQTL) mapping associates genetic variation with molecular traits that can be measured as gene expression, splicing and chromatin accessibility. In this Primer, Aguet et al. discuss the study design and implementation of molQTL mapping in various applications, with a focus on technical developments for functional characterization.

    • François Aguet
    • Kaur Alasoo
    • Tuuli Lappalainen
  • Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of crystalline porous polymers consisting of highly ordered organic structures formed by polymerization. In this Primer, Tan et al. discuss the design principle, experimental methods, characterization and applications of COFs.

    • Ke Tian Tan
    • Samrat Ghosh
    • Donglin Jiang
  • Principal component analysis is a multivariate statistical method that reduces a large number of variables into fewer variables, called principal components. This Primer describes how the method can be used for data analysis, explaining the mathematical background, analytical workflows, how to interpret a biplot and variants of the method.

    • Michael Greenacre
    • Patrick J. F. Groenen
    • Elena Tuzhilina
  • Hydrogels are used to mimic cells’ local environment, enabling the study of cellular responses to biochemical and mechanical cues. Here, Blache et al. discuss the challenges of creating hydrogels for mechanobiology studies and how they can be used to analyse cell behaviour in the context of mechanobiological processes and harnessed to create regenerative therapies.

    • Ulrich Blache
    • Eden M. Ford
    • Eileen Gentleman
  • Tandem mass spectrometry is increasingly utilized for clinical applications in laboratory medicine. In this Primer, Thomas et al. discuss experimental considerations and quality management for implementing clinical tandem mass spectrometry in the clinic with an overview of some key applications.

    • Stefani N. Thomas
    • Deborah French
    • William A. Clarke
  • Organoids are cell-based in vitro models derived from stem cells, reconstituting the complex structure and function of the corresponding tissue. In this Primer, Zhao, Chen, Dowbaj, Sljukic, Bratlie, Lin et al. discuss the development of organoids and methods for controlling their cellular environment.

    • Zixuan Zhao
    • Xinyi Chen
    • Hanry Yu
  • Magnetic nanomaterials can be used to transduce magnetic fields into biologically relevant signals. This Primer describes different magnetic transduction mechanisms, the design of nanotransducers and example applications for studying cell signalling and neuroscience.

    • Gabriela Romero
    • Jimin Park
    • Polina Anikeeva
  • Intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques are used to visualize intact and live tissues at the cellular and subcellular level. In this Primer, Scheele, Herrmann et al. discuss IVM in rodents, outlining challenges and opportunities for using the technique.

    • Colinda L. G. J. Scheele
    • David Herrmann
    • Jacco van Rheenen
  • Imaging flow cytometry combines the high-event-rate nature of flow cytometry with single-cell image acquisition associated with microscopy. In this Primer, Rees et al. discuss the typical imaging flow instrumentation, the type of data acquired and how to analyse them.

    • Paul Rees
    • Huw D. Summers
    • Minh Doan
  • Electrochemical water splitting using renewable electricity is a promising method for the sustainable production of hydrogen. This Primer overviews considerations, techniques and methods for water electrolysis and describes methods to improve rigour and reproducibility when analysing electrochemical data.

    • Arthur J. Shih
    • Mariana C. O. Monteiro
    • Marc T. M. Koper
  • Holographic microscopy is based on collecting holograms, patterns of dark and light fringes, and analysing them to obtain information about the specimen’s properties. This Primer introduces in-line holographic microscopy, with a focus on three analysis methods: generative modelling, machine learning and hybrid approaches.

    • Caroline Martin
    • Lauren E. Altman
    • Vinothan N. Manoharan
  • Optical coherence tomography can be used as a conventional microscope, ophthalmic scanner or endoscope. In this Primer, Bouma et al. outline the instrumentation and data processing in obtaining topological and internal microstructure information from samples in three dimensions.

    • Brett E. Bouma
    • Johannes F. de Boer
    • Maciej Wojtkowski
  • The combination of single-cell RNA sequencing with metabolic RNA labelling enables a time-resolved view of transcriptional responses in individual cells. In this Primer, Erhard and Saliba et al. discuss metabolic labelling approaches and how to assess the temporal dynamics of transcriptional responses in different conditions.

    • Florian Erhard
    • Antoine-Emmanuel Saliba
    • Lars Dölken