Enzymes

Definition

Enzymes catalyze nearly all of the chemical reactions that occur in biological systems. Enzymes are generally proteins but also include catalytic DNA and catalytic RNA. As effective biological catalysts, enzymes work by lowering a reaction’s activation energy barrier, thereby increasing the rate of the reaction. They also improve the specificity of the reactions.

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Latest Research and Reviews

  • Research | | open

    • Tomasz Olszak
    • , Mikhail M. Shneider
    • , Agnieszka Latka
    • , Barbara Maciejewska
    • , Christopher Browning
    • , Lada V. Sycheva
    • , Anneleen Cornelissen
    • , Katarzyna Danis-Wlodarczyk
    • , Sofya N. Senchenkova
    • , Alexander S. Shashkov
    • , Grzegorz Gula
    • , Michal Arabski
    • , Slawomir Wasik
    • , Konstantin A. Miroshnikov
    • , Rob Lavigne
    • , Petr G. Leiman
    • , Yuriy A. Knirel
    •  & Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
  • Research | | open

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase operates within two distinct multiprotein complexes named TORC1 and TORC2. Here the authors report a cryo-EM structure of TORC2, establish its subunit organization, providing a rationale for TORC2’s rapamycin insensitivity and the mutually exclusive inclusion of Avo3/Rictor or Raptor within their respective TOR complex.

    • Manikandan Karuppasamy
    • , Beata Kusmider
    • , Taiana M. Oliveira
    • , Christl Gaubitz
    • , Manoel Prouteau
    • , Robbie Loewith
    •  & Christiane Schaffitzel
  • Research | | open

    Drosophila Polo kinase is the founding member of the Polo-Like Kinase (PLK) family and a master regulator of mitosis and cytokinesis. Here the authors uncover a molecular mechanism for the spatiotemporal regulation of Polo kinase during mitotic entry through a phosphorylation event that triggers nuclear import.

    • David Kachaner
    • , Damien Garrido
    • , Haytham Mehsen
    • , Karine Normandin
    • , Hugo Lavoie
    •  & Vincent Archambault
  • Research | | open

    Chitosanases are classified according to their specificity in cleaving bonds at GlcNAc residues but the current system may be too simplistic. Here, the authors use quantitative mass spectrometry to revisit chitosanase specificity and propose additional determinants for their classification.

    • Tobias Weikert
    • , Anna Niehues
    • , Stefan Cord-Landwehr
    • , Margareta J. Hellmann
    •  & Bruno M. Moerschbacher
  • Research | | open

    Carrageenans, major cell wall polysaccharides of red macroalgae, are metabolised by marine heterotrophic bacteria through unclear mechanisms. Here, the authors identify an unusual polysaccharide-utilization locus encoding carrageenan catabolism in a marine bacterium, and characterise the complete pathway.

    • Elizabeth Ficko-Blean
    • , Aurélie Préchoux
    • , François Thomas
    • , Tatiana Rochat
    • , Robert Larocque
    • , Yongtao Zhu
    • , Mark Stam
    • , Sabine Génicot
    • , Murielle Jam
    • , Alexandra Calteau
    • , Benjamin Viart
    • , David Ropartz
    • , David Pérez-Pascual
    • , Gaëlle Correc
    • , Maria Matard-Mann
    • , Keith A. Stubbs
    • , Hélène Rogniaux
    • , Alexandra Jeudy
    • , Tristan Barbeyron
    • , Claudine Médigue
    • , Mirjam Czjzek
    • , David Vallenet
    • , Mark J. McBride
    • , Eric Duchaud
    •  & Gurvan Michel

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