Review Articles

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  • One major form of timing is the estimation of duration. In this Review, Tsao et al. describe the neural bases for estimating ongoing durations and those for estimating durations between past events within memory.

    • Albert Tsao
    • S. Aryana Yousefzadeh
    • Edvard I. Moser
    Review Article
  • High-resolution transcriptomic studies have enabled detailed dissection of the diverse cell types of the hypothalamus in adulthood and at different stages of development. In this Review, Benevento, Hökfelt and Harkany describe the processes that govern the generation and specification of cell types in the developing hypothalamus.

    • Marco Benevento
    • Tomas Hökfelt
    • Tibor Harkany
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Liu and Bohórquez explore the neural basis for sugar preference in mammals. The authors discuss the role of the gut in recognizing glucose and its consequence for sugar preference.

    • Winston W. Liu
    • Diego V. Bohórquez
    Review Article
  • Recent studies of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel structure have provided unique insight into the function of TRP channels in our normal sensations and in pain. In this Review, Rosenbaum et al. examine recent advances in the field of TRP ion channel structure–function relationships and their role in pain.

    • Tamara Rosenbaum
    • Sara L. Morales-Lázaro
    • León D. Islas
    Review Article
  • Social valence — the valence assigned to a social agent or social stimulus — is complex to compute. In this Review, Padilla-Coreano et al. explain how social attributes, social history, social memory, social rank and social isolation states are integrated to modulate social valence assignment.

    • Nancy Padilla-Coreano
    • Kay M. Tye
    • Moriel Zelikowsky
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Panzeri, Moroni, Safaai and Harvey explain how the levels and structures of correlations among the activity of neurons in a population shape information encoding, transmission and readout, and describe how future research could determine how the structures of correlations are optimized.

    • Stefano Panzeri
    • Monica Moroni
    • Christopher D. Harvey
    Review Article
  • Comparisons of real networks with null models enable researchers to test how statistically unexpected a particular network feature is. In this Review, Váša and Mišić describe different null-model approaches and instantiations, as well as their emerging uses and limitations.

    • František Váša
    • Bratislav Mišić
    Review Article
  • Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons shape memory formation and storage through cell type-specific mechanisms. In this review, Topolnik and Tamboli discuss how soma-targeting, dendrite-targeting and interneuron-targeting interneurons may specialize in supporting hippocampal oscillations, synaptic plasticity and memory processes.

    • Lisa Topolnik
    • Suhel Tamboli
    Review Article
  • Pathological forms of amyloid proteins, such as tau and α-synuclein, are thought to drive neurodegeneration. Li and Liu describe how techniques that reveal high-resolution protein structures can provide insight into polymorphic amyloid fibril formation and the relationships between amyloid protein conformation and disease.

    • Dan Li
    • Cong Liu
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Bradley, Nydam, Dux and Mattingley explore state-dependent variations in brain activity and behaviour with brain stimulation. They focus on transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial electrical stimulation and several domains — conscious state, attention and working memory.

    • Claire Bradley
    • Abbey S. Nydam
    • Jason B. Mattingley
    Review Article
  • Various theories have been developed for the biological and physical basis of consciousness. In this Review, Anil Seth and Tim Bayne discuss four prominent theoretical approaches to consciousness, namely higher-order theories, global workspace theories, re-entry and predictive processing theories and integrated information theory.

    • Anil K. Seth
    • Tim Bayne
    Review Article
  • Macroautophagy involves the delivery of various macromolecules and organelles to lysosomes for degradation. In this Review, Christopher Griffey and Ai Yamamoto provide an overview of this intracellular process and consider its modulation under physiological conditions and in brain disorders.

    • Christopher J. Griffey
    • Ai Yamamoto
    Review Article
  • The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been thought to track value, but new data implicate the OFC in the representation of cognitive maps of associative relationships. Here, Knudsen and Wallis review these hypotheses and examine how they might be reconciled.

    • Eric B. Knudsen
    • Joni D. Wallis
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Siddiqi et al. examine causal approaches to mapping human brain function. They provide a definition of causality for translational research, propose a framework for assessing causality strength in brain mapping studies and cover advances in techniques and their use in developing treatments for brain disorders.

    • Shan H. Siddiqi
    • Konrad P. Kording
    • Michael D. Fox
    Review Article
  • A large number of genes have been associated with risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this Review, State and colleagues examine the genetics and genomics of ASD and discuss findings from convergent neuroscience approaches that aim to understand how such genes may contribute to ASD pathobiology.

    • Helen Rankin Willsey
    • A. Jeremy Willsey
    • Matthew W. State
    Review Article
  • In this Review, Arber and Costa discuss the anatomical and functional specificity of circuitry essential for executing diverse body movements. They focus on specific neuronal populations in the brainstem and the basal ganglia, and the integration of these circuits into systems-level networks that afford flexibility and learning.

    • Silvia Arber
    • Rui M. Costa
    Review Article
  • During brain development, cortical circuits form in a stepwise manner through self-organization and activity-dependent adjustment. Cossart and Garel describe the stages that characterize this process and highlight the crucial contributions made by cortical neurons that adopt multiple cellular functions as their development progresses.

    • Rosa Cossart
    • Sonia Garel
    Review Article
  • Prioritization of visual inputs manifests itself in different behavioural signatures. In this Review, Rust and Cohen describe these signatures and their neural correlates and suggest that the brain uses a unified priority signal from which downstream areas can decode different types of priority.

    • Nicole C. Rust
    • Marlene R. Cohen
    Review Article