Endocrine toxicities of immune checkpoint inhibitors

This Review highlights our current understanding of endocrinopathies induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors, including epidemiology, aetiology, clinical manifestations and approaches to treatment.


  • An insulin molecule in purple, on a black background

    To mark the centenary of insulin's discovery, Nature Milestones presents a timeline of the past 100 years of diabetes research.

  • A human body with key endocrine structures highlighted.

    The Key Advances in Endocrinology collection offers a unique series of specially commissioned ‘Year in Review’ articles that highlight the key discoveries made each year. In these articles, leading experts describe their key advances of the year, outlining their clinical impact and implications for research.

  • Five women standing next to each other.

    This collection of articles published in the Nature Reviews journals provides in-depth discussions of recent research and medical advances in fields covering women’s health in the broadest sense.

  • A cross section of two teeth.

    This article series includes articles that focus on physiological and pathological aspects of the hormonal regulation of biomineralisation, covering aspects of fetal and neonatal development, osteoporosis and extraskeletal calcification.


    • Studies have shown that the three pathways of regulated necrosis, namely necroptosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis, can be therapeutically targeted. This Perspective summarizes existing data on the newly characterized cell death pathways in endocrine disorders.

      • Wulf Tonnus
      • Alexia Belavgeni
      • Andreas Linkermann
    • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are closely linked; effective therapeutics are lacking for both conditions, particularly NAFLD. This Review will discuss therapeutic options for NAFLD, focusing on targeting intermediary metabolism, insulin resistance and T2DM.

      • Daniel Ferguson
      • Brian N. Finck
      Review Article
    • A new study investigates brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume in young, metabolically healthy adults. The focus is on the associations between BAT volume and BMI, waist circumference, whole-body adipose tissue mass, visceral adipose tissue mass and cold-induced BAT activity. Of note, the reported associations differed in men and women.

      • Kirsi A. Virtanen
      • Pirjo Nuutila
      News & Views
    • COVID-19 has been described as a syndemic of COVID-19 and chronic diseases. Obesity has been identified as a contributing factor to morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19; however, sedentary behaviours and lack of physical activity should also be targeted by health authorities to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes.

      Refers to Sallis, R. et al. Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: a study in 48 440 adult patients. Br. J. Sports Med. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2021-104080 (2021).

      • Jean-Pierre Després
      News & Views
    • This Review critically evaluates the studies that support and refute the role of brain insulin in systemic nutrient partitioning. The authors discuss the role of brain insulin in metabolic control and the contribution of brain insulin resistance to metabolic disease and assess the therapeutic potential of enhancing or restoring brain insulin signalling in metabolic disease.

      • Thomas Scherer
      • Kenichi Sakamoto
      • Christoph Buettner
      Review Article
Islet biology

Islet biology

The endocrine pancreas is composed of clusters of cells, or islets, which secrete endocrine factors important for systemic metabolism, including insulin and glucagon.

Nature Careers