Reviews & Analysis

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  • The highlights of a wide range of studies using data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton) are reviewed.

    • Belinda J. Wilkes
    • Wallace Tucker
    • Maria Santos-Lleo
    Review Article
  • Recent progress in computational enzyme design, active site engineering and directed evolution are reviewed, highlighting methodological innovations needed to deliver improved designer biocatalysts.

    • Sarah L. Lovelock
    • Rebecca Crawshaw
    • Anthony P. Green
    Review Article
  • Oceanic plate carbon reservoirs are reconstructed and the fate of subducted carbon is tracked using thermodynamic modelling, challenging previous views and providing boundary conditions for future carbon cycle models.

    • R. Dietmar Müller
    • Ben Mather
    • Sabin Zahirovic
    Review Article
  • Recent theoretical and experimental progress in identifying and understanding magnetic topological materials is reviewed, highlighting the antiferromagnetic topological insulator MnBi2Te4 and the ferromagnetic Weyl semimetal Co3Sn2S2, and future research directions are discussed.

    • B. Andrei Bernevig
    • Claudia Felser
    • Haim Beidenkopf
    Review Article
  • The essential properties of moiré materials and the progress and latest developments in the field are reviewed, and their fabrication and physics are discussed from a reproducibility perspective.

    • Chun Ning Lau
    • Marc W. Bockrath
    • Fan Zhang
    Review Article
  • The potential origins and global spread of SARS-CoV-2, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and the importance of genomic surveillance for the control of the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed.

    • Juan Li
    • Shengjie Lai
    • Weifeng Shi
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the state of the art of interface optics—including refractive optics, meta-optics and moiré engineering—for the control of van der Waals polaritons.

    • Qing Zhang
    • Guangwei Hu
    • Cheng-Wei Qiu
    Review Article
  • Cratons are the oldest parts of the Earth’s continents; this Review concludes that the production of widespread, thick and strong lithosphere via the process of orogenic thickening was fundamental to the eventual emergence of extensive continental landmasses.

    • D. Graham Pearson
    • James M. Scott
    • Peter B. Kelemen
    Review Article
  • This Review outlines the gene and protein expression strategies used by viruses to expand the efficiency of their coding and regulatory sequences, and the implications of these mechanisms for developing antiviral agents.

    • Jessica Sook Yuin Ho
    • Zeyu Zhu
    • Ivan Marazzi
    Review Article
  • This Review examines the evidence showing that DNA damage is associated with ageing phenotypes, suggesting that it may have a central role as the cause of ageing.

    • Björn Schumacher
    • Joris Pothof
    • Jan H. J. Hoeijmakers
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses recent research that has transformed our understanding of the biology of atherosclerosis, and examines its implications for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    • Peter Libby
    Review Article
  • Ongoing global warming is likely to cause tipping point thresholds to be passed, but an abrupt system change can still be avoided if the warming is reversed quickly relative to the timescale of the tipping element.

    • Paul D. L. Ritchie
    • Joseph J. Clarke
    • Chris Huntingford
    Review Article
  • The volume of global aquaculture production has tripled since 2000 with positive trends in environmental performance, but the sector faces mounting challenges including pathogen management, pollution, climate change, and increasing dependence on land-based resource systems.

    • Rosamond L. Naylor
    • Ronald W. Hardy
    • Max Troell
    Review Article