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  Marie Bremont, pictured in April 25, 2001, was 115 years-old when she died.  
Why do humans age, when fairly similar creatures (such as turtles) apparently do not? Evolutionary history has determined that individuals thrive for long enough to produce and nurture their offspring. Thereafter, the ageing process involves a slow decline in physiological vigour and an increasing susceptibility to age-related disease. In this web focus, we present the latest research on a molecule that appears to mimic the well-documented lifespan-extending attributes of eating fewer calories. Also featured is a comprehensive archive on ageing research from Nature Publishing Group, from nematodes to humans.

Ageing: A toast to long life
Toren Finkel
Nature 425, 132 (11 Sept 2003)

Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan
KT Howitz et al.
Nature 425, 191 (11 Sept 2003)

Nicotinamide and PNC1 govern lifespan extension by calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Anderson RM, Bitterman KJ, Wood JG, Medvedik O, Sinclair DA.
Nature 423, 181 - 185 (08 May 2003)

Calorie restriction extends Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan by increasing respiration.
Lin SJ, Kaeberlein M, Andalis AA, Sturtz LA, Defossez PA, Culotta VC, Fink GR, Guarente L.
Nature 418, 344 - 348 (18 Jul 2002)

Increased dosage of a sir-2 gene extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Tissenbaum HA, Guarente L.
Nature 410, 227 - 230 (08 Mar 2001)

Transcriptional silencing and longevity protein Sir2 is an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase.
Imai S, Armstrong CM, Kaeberlein M, Guarente L.
Nature 403, 795 - 800 (17 Feb 2003)

Genes that act downstream of DAF-16 to influence the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Murphy CT, McCarroll SA, Bargmann CI, Fraser A, Kamath RS, Ahringer J, Li H, Kenyon C.
Nature 424, 277 - 283 (17 Jul 2003)

Stochastic and genetic factors influence tissue-specific decline in ageing C. elegans.
Herndon LA, Schmeissner PJ, Dudaronek JM, Brown PA, Listner KM, Sakano Y, Paupard MC, Hall DH, Driscoll M.
Nature 419, 808 - 814 (24 Oct 2002)

Regulation of lifespan by sensory perception in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Apfeld J, Kenyon C.
Nature 402, 804 - 809 (16 Dec 1999) Letters to Nature

Signals from the reproductive system regulate the lifespan of C. elegans.
Hsin H, Kenyon C.
Nature 399, 362 - 366 (27 May 1999)

A C. elegans mutant that lives twice as long as wild type.
Kenyon C, Chang J, Gensch E, Rudner A, Tabtiang R.
Nature 366, 461 - 464 (02 Dec 1993)

The Fork head transcription factor DAF-16 transduces insulin-like metabolic and longevity signals in C. elegans.
Ogg S, Paradis S, Gottlieb S, Patterson GI, Lee L, Tissenbaum HA, Ruvkun G.
Nature 389, 994 - 999 (30 Oct 1997)

A mutation in succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b causes oxidative stress and ageing in nematodes.
Ishii N, Fujii M, Hartman PS, Tsuda M, Yasuda K, Senoo-Matsuda N, Yanase S, Ayusawa D, Suzuki K.
Nature 394, 694 - 697 (13 Aug 1998)

Chaperoning extended life.
Tatar M, Khazaeli AA, Curtsinger JW.
Nature 390, 30 (06 Nov 1997)

Recurrent de novo point mutations in lamin A cause Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.
Eriksson M. et al.
Nature 423, 293 - 298 (15 May 2003)

A progeroid syndrome in mice is caused by defects in A-type lamins.
Mounkes LC, Kozlov S, Hernandez L, Sullivan T, Stewart CL.
Nature 423, 298 - 301 (15 May 2003)

A telomerase component is defective in the human disease dyskeratosis congenita.
Mitchell JR, Wood E, Collins K.
Nature 402, 551 - 555 (02 Dec 1999)

The RNA component of telomerase is mutated in autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita.
Vulliamy T, Marrone A, Goldman F, Dearlove A, Bessler M, Mason PJ, Dokal I.
Nature 413, 432 - 435 (27 Sep 2001)

Telomere reduction in human colorectal carcinoma and with ageing.
Hastie ND, Dempster M, Dunlop MG, Thompson AM, Green DK, Allshire RC.
Nature 346, 866 - 868 (30 Aug 1990)

Telomeres shorten during ageing of human fibroblasts.
Harley CB, Futcher AB, Greider CW.
Nature 345, 458 - 460 (31 May 1990)

IGF-1 receptor regulates lifespan and resistance to oxidative stress in mice.
Holzenberger M, Dupont J, Ducos B, Leneuve P, Geloen A, Even PC, Cervera P, Le Bouc Y.
Nature 421, 182 - 187 (09 Jan 2003)

The p66shc adaptor protein controls oxidative stress response and life span in mammals.
Migliaccio E, Giorgio M, Mele S, Pelicci G, Reboldi P, Pandolfi PP, Lanfrancone L, Pelicci PG.
Nature 402, 309 - 313 (18 Nov 1999)

p53 mutant mice that display early ageing-associated phenotypes.
Tyner S.D. et al
Nature 415, 45 - 53 (03 Jan 2002)

Mutation of the mouse klotho gene leads to a syndrome resembling ageing.
Kuro-o M. et al.
Nature 390, 45 - 51 (1997)

(9 November 2000)


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