Review Articles

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  • Robotic and other devices often demand ever more compact and sophisticated sensors. This Review assesses the opportunities for metasurfaces to provide optical functionality solutions for such applications.

    • Dragomir N. Neshev
    • Andrey E. Miroshnichenko
    Review Article
  • Nonlocal effects—in which the optical response of a system at a given spatial point depends on the field in the surrounding space—are reviewed in the context of metasurfaces and flat optics. Nonlocal flat optics may be useful for controlling light in ultra-thin platforms.

    • Kunal Shastri
    • Francesco Monticone
    Review Article
  • Recent advances in optical metalenses are reviewed with a focus on their unique features and applications in the space of optical metasystems.

    • Amir Arbabi
    • Andrei Faraon
    Review Article
  • Recent developments in reconfigurable metasurfaces are reviewed with a focus on case studies that are promising for commercialization and associated challenges.

    • Tian Gu
    • Hyun Jung Kim
    • Juejun Hu
    Review Article
  • Recent progress of table-top isolated attosecond light sources is reviewed with a focus on the related technologies for high-average-flux and high-peak-intensity attosecond bursts of light. An outlook on its applications is also provided.

    • Katsumi Midorikawa
    Review Article
  • This Review details the fundamental photonics and thermodynamics concepts that underlie the processes of radiative cooling, and discusses a few emerging directions associated with radiative cooling research.

    • Shanhui Fan
    • Wei Li
    Review Article
  • Progress on Landau level lasers—based on external magnetic field splitting of electronic states—is reviewed, with particular attention paid to the potential for tunable terahertz lasers.

    • Erich Gornik
    • Gottfried Strasser
    • Karl Unterrainer
    Review Article
  • This Review summarizes the latest state-of-the-art technologies for high-speed multiphoton (fluorescence) microscopy, especially at kilohertz 2D frame rate, and 3D video rate or beyond—a speed regime that was generally inconceivable until very recently, as well as the prospects and challenges of these emerging technologies.

    • Jianglai Wu
    • Na Ji
    • Kevin K. Tsia
    Review Article
  • A summary of recent advances in the near-infrared light-emitting diodes that are fabricated by solution-processed means, with coverage of devices based on organic semiconductors, halide perovskites and colloidal quantum dots.

    • Maria Vasilopoulou
    • Azhar Fakharuddin
    • Edward H. Sargent
    Review Article
  • Colloidal quantum dots may offer solution-processable lasers, with a wide range of colours available. Technical hurdles and progress towards realization of useful quantum dot laser diodes is reviewed.

    • Heeyoung Jung
    • Namyoung Ahn
    • Victor I. Klimov
    Review Article
  • Recent progress in terahertz scanning probe microscopy is reviewed with an emphasis on techniques that access length scales below 100 nm relevant to material science. An outlook on the future of nanoscale terahertz scanning probe microscopy is also provided.

    • T. L. Cocker
    • V. Jelic
    • F. A. Hegmann
    Review Article
  • Nearly 100 years after the prediction of Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy, or Brillouin–Mandelstam light-scattering spectroscopy, the effect has proved itself a powerful tool for decades. Now its application to probing confined acoustic phonons, phononic metamaterials and magnons is reviewed.

    • Fariborz Kargar
    • Alexander A. Balandin
    Review Article
  • Recent effort in controlling the structure of light in all its degrees of freedom and dimensions has pushed the limits of structured light and broadened its potential beyond orbital angular momentum, two-dimensional fields, qubits and biphotons, and linear optical manipulation.

    • Andrew Forbes
    • Michael de Oliveira
    • Mark R. Dennis
    Review Article
  • The potential of machine-learning application to the field of ultrafast photonics is reviewed, with key examples including pulsed lasers, and control and characterization of ultrafast propagation dynamics.

    • Goëry Genty
    • Lauri Salmela
    • Sergei K. Turitsyn
    Review Article