Review Articles

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  • The authors review archaeal morphology, surface features, internal organization and cell division, discussing the state of the art and future research directions.

    • Marleen van Wolferen
    • Andre Arashiro Pulschen
    • Sonja-Verena Albers
    Review Article
  • Hoenigl and colleagues review the epidemiology, immunology and clinical risk factors contributing to COVID-19-associated fungal infections.

    • Martin Hoenigl
    • Danila Seidel
    • Agostinho Carvalho
    Review Article
  • Women are more affected by sexually transmitted infections than men. This Review examines the impact of non-HIV STIs on women’s health, and discusses recent advances and current challenges in the treatment and prevention of STIs.

    • Olivia T. Van Gerwen
    • Christina A. Muzny
    • Jeanne M. Marrazzo
    Review Article
  • Understanding the mechanisms and evolution of pathogenicity in fungi will bring us a step closer to reducing the annual toll of 1.6 million deaths from fungal disease.

    • Antonis Rokas
    Review Article
  • Following bacterial infection, macrophages undergo metabolic changes that activate antibacterial responses. However, pathogens can exploit host immunometabolites as a signal for virulence induction. This Review examines the crosstalk between pathogens and macrophage immunometabolism.

    • Gili Rosenberg
    • Sebastian Riquelme
    • Roi Avraham
    Review Article
  • Sources of microbial metabolites in the surface ocean, their roles in ecology and biogeochemistry, and methods that can be used to analyse them are reviewed.

    • Mary Ann Moran
    • Elizabeth B. Kujawinski
    • Assaf Vardi
    Review Article
  • This Review summarizes current knowledge on the vaginal microbiota and discusses how research can progress from association to mechanism to provide deeper insights into its role in health and disease.

    • Michael France
    • Madeline Alizadeh
    • Jacques Ravel
    Review Article
  • Proviral host factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection, cellular processes that are important in SARS-CoV-2 replication and host factors that could be targeted by antiviral therapies for COVID-19 are reviewed.

    • Jim Baggen
    • Els Vanstreels
    • Dirk Daelemans
    Review Article
  • Recent advances in genome sequencing have started to reveal an increasing diversity and distribution of archaeal genomes across multiple ecosystems. In this Review, Baker and colleagues discuss how these genomes elucidate the metabolic capabilities of the Archaea and their ecological roles, while also expanding our view of the tree of life and of eukaryogenesis.

    • Brett J. Baker
    • Valerie De Anda
    • Karen G. Lloyd
    Review Article
  • Flaviviruses, a group of vector-borne RNA viruses that includes dengue virus, West Nile virus, Zika virus and several lesser-known species, often emerge in human populations and cause epidemics. Here, Pierson and Diamond review the basic biology of these viruses, their life cycles, the diseases they cause and available therapeutic options. They also discuss the global distribution of flaviviruses, with a focus on lesser-known species that have the potential to emerge more broadly in human populations.

    • Theodore C. Pierson
    • Michael S. Diamond
    Review Article
  • This Review summarizes mathematical modelling approaches that can be applied to microbiome datasets, providing insights into microbial dynamics and interactions in this complex system.

    • Manish Kumar
    • Boyang Ji
    • Jens Nielsen
    Review Article
  • This Review highlights some of the advances that have been made towards understanding the complexity of differential interferon (IFN) signalling inputs and outputs as well as some of the strategies viruses use to interfere with or circumvent IFN-induced antiviral responses.

    • Emily V. Mesev
    • Robert A. LeDesma
    • Alexander Ploss
    Review Article
  • This Review describes the potential opportunities for finding new uses as antimicrobials for existing drugs, the approaches used for screening and the scientific, intellectual property and regulatory challenges to be overcome.

    • Maya A. Farha
    • Eric D. Brown
    Review Article
  • This Review Article describes how recent advances in viral genome sequencing and phylogenetics have enabled key issues associated with outbreak epidemiology to be more accurately addressed, and highlights the requirements and challenges for generating, sharing and using such data when tackling a viral outbreak.

    • Nathan D. Grubaugh
    • Jason T. Ladner
    • Kristian G. Andersen
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses the role of the gut, respiratory tract and vaginal microbiota in susceptibility and resistance to infectious diseases.

    • Josie Libertucci
    • Vincent B. Young
    Review Article