Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    This Review summarizes recent progress in exploring the intrinsic magnetism of atomically thin van der Waals materials, manipulation of their magnetism by tuning the interlayer coupling, and device structures for spin- and valleytronic applications.

    • Bevin Huang
    • , Michael A. McGuire
    • , Andrew F. May
    • , Di Xiao
    • , Pablo Jarillo-Herrero
    •  & Xiaodong Xu
  • Review Article |

    The development of perovskite emitters, their use in light-emitting devices, and the challenges in enhancing the efficiency and stability, as well as reducing the potential toxicity of this technology are discussed in this Review.

    • Xiao-Ke Liu
    • , Weidong Xu
    • , Sai Bai
    • , Yizheng Jin
    • , Jianpu Wang
    • , Richard H. Friend
    •  & Feng Gao
  • Review Article |

    Thermoplasmonics is based on the use of plasmonic nanoparticles as sources of heat remotely controlled by light. This Review discusses its current applications and challenges in a broad range of scientific fields, from nanomedicine to hot-electron chemistry and nanofluidics.

    • Guillaume Baffou
    • , Frank Cichos
    •  & Romain Quidant
  • Review Article |

    Electrochemical capacitors can store electrical energy harvested from intermittent sources and deliver energy quickly, but increased energy density is required for flexible and wearable electronics and larger equipment. Progress in materials and devices and key perspectives in this field are outlined.

    • Patrice Simon
    •  & Yury Gogotsi
  • Review Article |

    This Review provides an overview of the advances in materials and device design that are enabling the realization of implantable electronic interfaces for long-term, multiplexed recording and stimulation of the brain and nervous system.

    • Enming Song
    • , Jinghua Li
    • , Sang Min Won
    • , Wubin Bai
    •  & John A. Rogers
  • Review Article |

    Organic semiconductors are making their way into applications ranging from display technology to flexible electronics and biomedical applications. This Review discusses current understanding of charge carrier transport in these materials and strategies to improve their performance.

    • Simone Fratini
    • , Mark Nikolka
    • , Alberto Salleo
    • , Guillaume Schweicher
    •  & Henning Sirringhaus
  • Review Article |

    Progress in utilizing spin current as a probe of quantum materials,—including topological insulators, superconductors, spin liquids, magnonic systems and spin superfluidity,—is reviewed.

    • Wei Han
    • , Sadamichi Maekawa
    •  & Xin-Cheng Xie
  • Review Article |

    Solid-state batteries are attractive due to their potential safety, energy-density and cycle-life benefits. Recent progress in understanding inorganic solid electrolytes considering multiscale ion transport, electrochemical and mechanical properties, and processing are discussed.

    • Theodosios Famprikis
    • , Pieremanuele Canepa
    • , James A. Dawson
    • , M. Saiful Islam
    •  & Christian Masquelier
  • Review Article |

    From optoelectronic to biomedical and energy storage applications, the interest in organic mixed ionic–electronic conductors is expanding. This Review describes current understanding of the processes occurring in these materials and their structure–property relations.

    • Bryan D. Paulsen
    • , Klas Tybrandt
    • , Eleni Stavrinidou
    •  & Jonathan Rivnay
  • Review Article |

    Spatially resolved electron microscopy techniques, such as cathodoluminescence and electron energy-loss spectroscopy can provide high space, energy and time resolutions for the structural and optical characterization of materials; this Review discusses recent progress and future directions in the field of nanophotonics.

    • Albert Polman
    • , Mathieu Kociak
    •  & F. Javier García de Abajo
  • Review Article |

    This Review covers the basic physics of thermal emission, ways to engineer the thermal field radiated by hot objects in the far field and applications, such as thermophotovoltaics, radiative cooling, camouflage and privacy.

    • Denis G. Baranov
    • , Yuzhe Xiao
    • , Igor A. Nechepurenko
    • , Alex Krasnok
    • , Andrea Alù
    •  & Mikhail A. Kats
  • Review Article |

    The droplet epitaxy technique has emerged as an alternative to the most commonly used Stranski–Krastanov for fabricating semiconductor nanostructures. This Review discusses the important aspects of droplet epitaxy quantum dots, from the growth mechanism to device application.

    • Massimo Gurioli
    • , Zhiming Wang
    • , Armando Rastelli
    • , Takashi Kuroda
    •  & Stefano Sanguinetti
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses recent developments in the area of non-Hermitian physics, and more specifically the special case of non-Hermitian optical systems with parity–time symmetry.

    • Ş. K. Özdemir
    • , S. Rotter
    • , F. Nori
    •  & L. Yang
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the origins of localized plasmon resonances in few-nanometre or sub-nanometre gaps between metal nanoparticles and metal films, as well recent experimental observations and potential future directions.

    • Jeremy J. Baumberg
    • , Javier Aizpurua
    • , Maiken H. Mikkelsen
    •  & David R. Smith
  • Review Article |

    Memristive devices show great potential as artificial synapses and neurons, yet brain-inspired computing can be realized only by integrating a large number of these devices into reliable arrays. This Review discusses the challenges in the integration and use in computation of large-scale memristive neural networks.

    • Qiangfei Xia
    •  & J. Joshua Yang
  • Review Article |

    Magnetoelectric multiferroics, where magnetic properties are manipulated by electric field and vice versa, could lead to improved electronic devices. Here, advances in materials, characterisation and modelling, and usage in applications are reviewed.

    • N. A. Spaldin
    •  & R. Ramesh
  • Review Article |

    Biomaterials have been utilized widely to study cellular mechanotransduction. This Review discusses how cells respond to mechanical cues elicited by a range of biomaterial characteristics via YAP/TAZ mechanosensitive transcriptional factor activity.

    • Giovanna Brusatin
    • , Tito Panciera
    • , Alessandro Gandin
    • , Anna Citron
    •  & Stefano Piccolo
  • Review Article |

    Immunotherapy offers a promising approach to treating a range of complications. This Review discusses strategies that employ bioengineering and immunological principles to develop engineered tissues for screening therapeutics and treating diseases.

    • Emily A. Gosselin
    • , Haleigh B. Eppler
    • , Jonathan S. Bromberg
    •  & Christopher M. Jewell
  • Review Article |

    Lead-halide perovskites have entered the family of colloidal nanocrystals, showing excellent optical properties and easy synthesizability. This Review provides an insight into their chemical versatility, stability challenges and use in optoelectronics.

    • Quinten A. Akkerman
    • , Gabriele Rainò
    • , Maksym V. Kovalenko
    •  & Liberato Manna
  • Review Article |

    The exploration of the properties and applications of quantum materials relies on advances in synthesis techniques. The approaches pursued to realize thin films and other materials revealing emergent quantum behaviour are reviewed here.

    • Nitin Samarth
  • Review Article |

    The key to exploiting quantum materials for applications is the control of their properties. This Review discusses strategies to externally modify their properties on demand.

    • D. N. Basov
    • , R. D. Averitt
    •  & D. Hsieh
  • Review Article |

    Hydrogen generation from water and sunlight offers a promising way to produce carbon-free energy. Recent progress in predicting properties of heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting using first-principles approaches is now reviewed.

    • Tuan Anh Pham
    • , Yuan Ping
    •  & Giulia Galli
  • Review Article |

    Converting sunlight into fuels is attractive for energy storage and photoelectrocatalytic technologies. Scientific challenges related to developing suitable photoabsorbers, efficient catalysts and understanding their interfaces are now reviewed.

    • Joseph H. Montoya
    • , Linsey C. Seitz
    • , Pongkarn Chakthranont
    • , Aleksandra Vojvodic
    • , Thomas F. Jaramillo
    •  & Jens K. Nørskov
  • Review Article |

    Lessons learned from coherent phenomena in biological photosynthetic systems may be useful to improve energy- and charge-transport in disordered materials. This Review describes coherence and its potential beneficial effects in photovoltaics.

    • Jean-Luc Brédas
    • , Edward H. Sargent
    •  & Gregory D. Scholes
  • Review Article |

    Advances in electrocatalysis at interfaces are vital for driving technological innovations related to energy. New materials developments for efficient hydrogen and oxygen production in electrolysers and in fuel cells are described.

    • Vojislav R. Stamenkovic
    • , Dusan Strmcnik
    • , Pietro P. Lopes
    •  & Nenad M. Markovic
  • Review Article |

    Significant progress in battery technology is crucial to ensure a transition towards a carbon-neutral society. Recent advances in both sustainability and operando techniques together with remaining challenges and possible solutions are now reviewed.

    • C. P. Grey
    •  & J. M. Tarascon
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the properties of polariton modes (plasmon, phonon and exciton) in graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal dichalcogenides for applications across the terahertz to visible spectrum.

    • Tony Low
    • , Andrey Chaves
    • , Joshua D. Caldwell
    • , Anshuman Kumar
    • , Nicholas X. Fang
    • , Phaedon Avouris
    • , Tony F. Heinz
    • , Francisco Guinea
    • , Luis Martin-Moreno
    •  & Frank Koppens
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the different, state-of-the-art applications of heterostructures containing at least one layer of a two-dimensional (2D) material, combined with 0D, 1D and 3D nano-objects.

    • Deep Jariwala
    • , Tobin J. Marks
    •  & Mark C. Hersam
  • Review Article |

    This review discusses exciton–polaritons in microcavities and their emerging technological applications, with emphasis on the materials challenges for operation at room temperature.

    • Daniele Sanvitto
    •  & Stéphane Kéna-Cohen
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the materials and electronic requirements for flexible sensors and electronic systems to mimic the mechanical and sensing properties of natural skin, with the goal of providing artificial prostheses with sensing capabilities.

    • Alex Chortos
    • , Jia Liu
    •  & Zhenan Bao
  • Review Article |

    Optical transparency, tunable conducting properties and easy processability make metal oxides key materials for advanced optoelectronic devices. This Review discusses recent advances in the synthesis of these materials and their use in applications.

    • Xinge Yu
    • , Tobin J. Marks
    •  & Antonio Facchetti
  • Review Article |

    The role of surface ligands in tuning the optoelectronic properties, controlling the stability and determining the performance in applications of colloidal nanocrystals is discussed in this Review.

    • Michael A. Boles
    • , Daishun Ling
    • , Taeghwan Hyeon
    •  & Dmitri V. Talapin
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the properties and applications of supramolecular biomaterials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and immunology.

    • Matthew J. Webber
    • , Eric A. Appel
    • , E. W. Meijer
    •  & Robert Langer
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the physics of electrical contacts to 2D semiconductors and the strategies adopted to improve charge injection in these materials. The requirements for efficient spin injection in spintronic devices are also presented.

    • Adrien Allain
    • , Jiahao Kang
    • , Kaustav Banerjee
    •  & Andras Kis
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses recent and ongoing realizations of Rashba physics in various fields of physics and materials science.

    • A. Manchon
    • , H. C. Koo
    • , J. Nitta
    • , S. M. Frolov
    •  & R. A. Duine
  • Review Article |

    Major strategies for the preparation and rational design of nanoporous carbon spheres as well as the investigation of their properties for energy conversion and storage, catalysis and biomedical applications are now critically reviewed.

    • Jian Liu
    • , Nilantha P. Wickramaratne
    • , Shi Zhang Qiao
    •  & Mietek Jaroniec
  • Review Article |

    Optically excited plasmonic nanoparticles can activate chemical reactions on their surfaces. The underlying physical mechanisms responsible for the chemical activity and advances in photocatalysis on plasmonic metallic nanostructures are discussed.

    • Suljo Linic
    • , Umar Aslam
    • , Calvin Boerigter
    •  & Matthew Morabito
  • Review Article |

    The properties and applications of biomacromolecules, for example proteins, can be enhanced by the covalent attachment of synthetic polymers. This Review discusses the modification of these biomacromolecules with stimuli-responsive polymers.

    • Isidro Cobo
    • , Ming Li
    • , Brent S. Sumerlin
    •  & Sébastien Perrier
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses the common structural motifs of a range of natural materials and the difficulties associated with mimicking these designs in the fabrication of synthetic structures with enhanced mechanical properties.

    • Ulrike G. K. Wegst
    • , Hao Bai
    • , Eduardo Saiz
    • , Antoni P. Tomsia
    •  & Robert O. Ritchie
  • Review Article |

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have great potential for regenerative medicine, yet producing billions of hPSCs suitable for clinical use needs defined culture conditions and scalable culture systems. This Review discusses the role of high-throughput materials discovery in the development of scalable growth substrates for hPSC culture.

    • Adam D. Celiz
    • , James G. W. Smith
    • , Robert Langer
    • , Daniel G. Anderson
    • , David A. Winkler
    • , David A. Barrett
    • , Martyn C. Davies
    • , Lorraine E. Young
    • , Chris Denning
    •  & Morgan R. Alexander
  • Review Article |

    Inherent properties of materials, such as their adhesiveness to cells, nanotopography, stiffness, degradability or chemical functionality, can influence the fate of stem cells. This Review discusses recent evidence of how inherent material properties can be engineered to regulate stem cell decisions, as well as of signal-transduction mechanisms that convert material stimuli into biochemical signals.

    • William L. Murphy
    • , Todd C. McDevitt
    •  & Adam J. Engler
  • Review Article |

    Stem cells respond to nanoscale cues from the extracellular matrix or culture substrates by altering cell adhesion, which can in turn define their fate. This Review discusses how stem cell adhesion and differentiation are influenced by surface nanotopography, with a particular focus on integrin–matrix interactions and cell-adhesion-mediated signalling processes.

    • Matthew J. Dalby
    • , Nikolaj Gadegaard
    •  & Richard O. C. Oreffo
  • Review Article |

    Strategies to increase light-trapping in solar cells can significantly improve the power-conversion efficiency of these devices. This Review discusses the use of nanostructured high-index layers to manipulate photons in thin-film solar cells, as well as the recent efforts aimed at integrating such layers in large-area devices.

    • Mark L. Brongersma
    • , Yi Cui
    •  & Shanhui Fan