Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger

Journal:
The Astrophysical Journal Letters
Published:
DOI:
10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9
Affiliations:
976
Authors:
3529

Research Highlight

When neutron stars collide

© Stocktrek Images/Getty

A collision between neutron stars small, dense stellar objects close to the end of their life-cycles – was observed for the first time, thanks to a worldwide network of telescopes.

A global collaboration, including researchers from the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, has now confirmed gravitational waves, ripples in space-time, and electromagnetic radiation were emitted following the collision of two neutron stars in the galaxy NGC 4993.

In August 2017, two gravitational-wave detectors picked up a signal from 130 million light years away. Less than two seconds later, a space telescope detected a burst of gamma rays from the same source. Within an hour, multiple telescopes had picked up a short-lived surge of ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation that signalled an explosion called a ‘kilonova’. Over the following fortnight, observatories detected X-ray and radio wave emissions that indicated the burst was slowing down.

This series of events was the long-awaited sign of neutron stars merging, and highlights the potential for global collaborations to unveil more mysteries of the universe.

Supported content

References

  1. The Astrophysical Journal Letters 848, L12 (2017) doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa91c9
Institutions Authors Share
California Institute of Technology (Caltech), United States of America (USA)
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Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), CAS, China
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Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (AEI), Germany
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Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), United States of America (USA)
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University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (UK)
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INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Cagliari (OAC), Italy
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University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison), United States of America (USA)
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RWTH Aachen University (RWTH Aachen), Germany
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Division V - Physics and Mathematics, KIT, Germany
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), United States of America (USA)
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The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), United States of America (USA)
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The University of Adelaide (Adelaide Uni), Australia
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University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Germany
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German Electron Synchrotron (DESY), Germany
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AstroParticle and Cosmology Laboratory (APC), France
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University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP), United States of America (USA)
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National Institute for Subatomic Physics (Nikhef), Netherlands
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National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico
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European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), Italy
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University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM), United States of America (USA)
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Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), France
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Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), United States of America (USA)
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Ulughbeg Astronomical Institute (UBAI), UzAS, Uzbekistan
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INFN Section in Pisa, Italy
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University of Wuppertal, Germany
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Australian National University (ANU), Australia
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Cardiff University, United Kingdom (UK)
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Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas (ITeDA), Argentina
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Stanford University, United States of America (USA)
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AlbaNova University Center - Stockholm Center for Physics, Astronomy and Biotechnology (AlbaNova), Sweden
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Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU), Russia
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Syracuse University, United States of America (USA)
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INAF - Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology (IAPS), Italy
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University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), United States of America (USA)
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University of Birmingham (UB), United Kingdom (UK)
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Astrophysique Relativiste, Théories, Expériences, Metrologie, Instrumentation, Signaux (ARTEMIS), France
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Radboud University Nijmegen (RU), Netherlands
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INAF - Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics of Bologna (IASF Bologna), Italy
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University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark
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University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil
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University of Florida (UF), United States of America (USA)
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NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), United States of America (USA)
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Stanford Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC), United States of America (USA)
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Northwestern University (NU), United States of America (USA)
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Instituto de Astronomía Teórica y Experimental (IATE CONICET-UNC), Argentina
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Institute of Physics (FZU), CAS, Czech Republic
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Laboratory of the Linear Accelerator (LAL), France
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International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), Australia
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Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), United States of America (USA)
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The University of Chicago (UChicago), United States of America (USA)
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University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UH Mānoa), United States of America (USA)
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Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), India
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Mongolian Academy of Sciences (MAS), Mongolia
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Center for Particle Physics of Marseilles (CPPM), France
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Louisiana State University (LSU), United States of America (USA)
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The University of Western Australia (UWA), Australia
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INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Rome (OAR), Italy
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Tsinghua University, China
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CEA Institute of Research into the Fundamental Laws of the Universe (IRFU), France
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INFN Section in Napoli, Italy
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Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier (LUPM), France
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University of Alberta (U of A), Canada
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University of Texas Rio Grande Valley (UTRGV), United States of America (USA)
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INFN Section in Roma, Italy
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University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC), United States of America (USA)
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Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU), Germany
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TU Dortmund University, Germany
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Laboratory Nuclear and High-Energy Physics (LPNHE), France
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Subaru Telescope, NAOJ, United States of America (USA)
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Queen's University Belfast (QUB), United Kingdom (UK)
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University of Leicester, United Kingdom (UK)
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INFN Section in Roma Tor Vergata, Italy
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Monash University, Australia
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The University of Tokyo (UTokyo), Japan
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ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Australia
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Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU), United States of America (USA)
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University of Oregon (UO), United States of America (USA)
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Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (IAA), CSIC, Spain
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INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Brera (OAB), Italy
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Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Belgium
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Michigan State University (MSU), United States of America (USA)
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The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN), PAS, Poland
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Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Germany
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University of Hamburg (UHH), Germany
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Humboldt University of Berlin (HU Berlin), Germany
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University of Warsaw (UW), Poland
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Interuniversity Institute for High Energies (IIHE), Belgium
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University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK)
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University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), United States of America (USA)
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Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), France
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Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), United States of America (USA)
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University of Michigan (U-M), United States of America (USA)
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The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), China
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National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (INAOE), CONACYT, Mexico
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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United States of America (USA)
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Columbia University in the City of New York (CU), United States of America (USA)
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Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech), Japan
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INFN Section in Genova, Italy
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Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC), Spain
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Balseiro Institute, Argentina
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Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), JAXA, Japan
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RIKEN Innovation Center (RINC), Japan
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Hiroshima University (HU), Japan
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University of Southampton (Soton), United Kingdom (UK)
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Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), South Korea
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University of Delaware (UD), United States of America (USA)
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University of Siegen, Germany
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University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland
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Michigan Technological University (Michigan Tech), United States of America (USA)
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Ioffe Institute, RAS, Russia
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Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP), Mexico
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Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
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Leibniz University Hannover (LUH), Germany
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University of Amsterdam (UvA), Netherlands
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Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), United States of America (USA)
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Italian Space Agency (ASI), Italy
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University of Lisbon (ULISBOA), Portugal
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Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), Italy
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Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK), Germany
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Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), South Korea
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University of Nova Gorica (UNG), Slovenia
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University of Pisa (UNIPI), Italy
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INFN Section in Bari, Italy
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Kyoto University, Japan
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Chiba University, Japan
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University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), United States of America (USA)
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Leprince-Ringuet Laboratory (LLR), France
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Texas Tech University (TTU), United States of America (USA)
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Kastler Brossel Laboratory (LKB), France
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University of Santiago de Compostela (USC), Spain
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The University of Warwick (Warwick), United Kingdom (UK)
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California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), United States of America (USA)
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Ruhr University Bochum (RUB), Germany
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INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Padova (OAPD), Italy
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UCL, United Kingdom (UK)
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Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU), United Kingdom (UK)
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INFN Section in Torino, Italy
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Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center (CAMK-PAN), PAS, Poland
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Long Island University (LIU), United States of America (USA)
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State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil
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Institute for Corpuscular Physics (IFIC), Spain
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National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), NINS, Japan
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Laboratory of Instrumentation and Experimental Particle Physics (LIP), Portugal
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INFN Southern National Laboratory (LNS), Italy
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University of Minnesota (UMN), United States of America (USA)
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South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), South Africa
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Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), India
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NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), United States of America (USA)
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Instituto de Física La Plata (IFLP CONICET-UNLP), Argentina
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Heidelberg University (Uni Heidelberg), Germany
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Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN HH), Romania
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Institute of Nuclear Physics of Orsay (IPNO), France
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USN Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), United States of America (USA)
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Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, RAS, Russia
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Seoul National University (SNU), South Korea
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University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), China
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Valongo Observatory (OV), UFRJ, Brazil
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INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy
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European Southern Observatory (ESO), Germany
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INFN Section in Padova, Italy
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CSIRO Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF), Australia
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Associate Directorate for Experimental Physical Sciences (ADEPS), LANL, United States of America (USA)
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Pierre Auger Observatory, Argentina
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The Ohio State University (OSU), United States of America (USA)
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The University of Alabama (UA), United States of America (USA)
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University of Tübingen (Uni Tübingen), Germany
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Ghent University (UGent), Belgium
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INFN Section in Lecce, Italy
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Institute of Space Science (ISS), Romania
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Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany
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SKA South Africa, South Africa
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California State University, Fullerton (CSUF), United States of America (USA)
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Rikkyo University, Japan
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Laboratory Universe and Theories (LUTH), France
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University of Hyogo, Japan
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Centre of Nuclear Studies of Bordeaux-Gradignan (CENBG), France
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West Virginia University (WVU), United States of America (USA)
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Kenyon College, United States of America (USA)
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National Institute for Space Research (INPE), MCTIC, Brazil
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Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan
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Curtin University, Australia
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Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India
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University of Valencia (UV), Spain
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Texas A&M University (TAMU), United States of America (USA)
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University of Innsbruck (LFU), Austria
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University of Naples Federico II (UNINA), Italy
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Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
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Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics (CITA), U of T, Canada
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Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), United States of America (USA)
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National Observatory (ON), MCTIC, Brazil
5.500000
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INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Italy
5.500000
0.00
Nagoya University, Japan
5.500000
0.00
Universities Space Research Association (USRA), United States of America (USA)
5.500000
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University of Padova (UNIPD), Italy
5.333333
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Mohammed V University, Morocco
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Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (UMSNH), Mexico
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National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Poland
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Uppsala University (UU), Sweden
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University of La Serena (ULS), Chile
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Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIFR), Germany
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INFN Section in Catania, Italy
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Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS), Israel
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Tel Aviv University (TAU), Israel
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University of Washington (UW), United States of America (USA)
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Colorado School of Mines, United States of America (USA)
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Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (RCPTM), PU, Czech Republic
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INAF - Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics of Milano (IASF Milano), Italy
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University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (Wits University), South Africa
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Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas (UNACH), Mexico
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University of the West of Scotland (UWS), United Kingdom (UK)
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University of Pennsylvania (Penn), United States of America (USA)
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University of Lodz (UL), Poland
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University of Mississippi (Ole Miss), United States of America (USA)
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The University of Utah (Utah), United States of America (USA)
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The University of New Mexico (UNM), United States of America (USA)
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University College Dublin (UCD), Ireland
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Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), Chile, Chile
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University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom (UK)
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Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), United States of America (USA)
5.000000
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Paris Institute of Astrophysics (IAP), France
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Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (PUC), Chile
4.595238
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Industrial University of Santander (UIS), Colombia
4.500000
0.00
Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV), Spain
4.500000
0.00
INFN Section in Florence, Italy
4.500000
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European Southern Observatory (ESO), Chile
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Carnegie Observatories, CIS, United States of America (USA)
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INAF - Institute of Radioastronomy (IRA), Italy
4.500000
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Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC (JIVE), Netherlands
4.500000
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International Centre for Theoretical Sciences (ICTS), TIFR, India
4.500000
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University of Potsdam, Germany
4.500000
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Space Research Institute (IKI), RAS, Russia
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SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, United States of America (USA)
4.333333
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Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology (IRAP), France
4.166667
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Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO), CAS, China
4.166667
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The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom (UK)
4.000000
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Southern University and A&M College, United States of America (USA)
4.000000
0.00
Chuo University, Japan
4.000000
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Drexel University, United States of America (USA)
4.000000
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University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), Spain
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Associate Directorate for Theory, Simulation, and Computation (ADTSC), LANL, United States of America (USA)
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INFN Section in Perugia, Italy
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National Institute for Mathematical Sciences (NIMS), IBS, South Korea
4.000000
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Carleton College, United States of America (USA)
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National Technological University (UTN), Argentina
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University of the Free State (UFS), South Africa
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Jagiellonian University (UJ), Poland
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University of Namibia (UNAM), Namibia
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University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy
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University of Urbino, Italy
4.000000
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Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy (CCAA), China
4.000000
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University of Granada (UGR), Spain
4.000000
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Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE), Hungary
4.000000
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Osaka University, Japan
4.000000
0.00
University of Salento, Italy
4.000000
0.00
Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), France
4.000000
0.00
National Tsing Hua University (NTHU), Taiwan
4.000000
0.00
Nihon University, Japan
4.000000
0.00
National University of San Juan (UNSJ), Argentina
4.000000
0.00
ASTRON Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, NWO-I, Netherlands
3.833333
0.00
University of Oxford, United Kingdom (UK)
3.833333
0.00
University of Catania, Italy
3.750000
0.00
University of the Virgin Islands (UVI), United States of America (USA)
3.666667
0.00
SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, NWO-I, Netherlands
3.500000
0.00
INFN Section in Milano, Italy
3.500000
0.00
Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), United States of America (USA)
3.500000
0.00
University of Turku (UTU), Finland
3.500000
0.00
State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY Stony Brook), United States of America (USA)
3.500000
0.00
INFN Section in Bologna, Italy
3.500000
0.00
Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Brazil
3.500000
0.00
The George Washington University (GW), United States of America (USA)
3.500000
0.00
The University of Sydney (USYD), Australia
3.416667
0.00
Trento Institute for Fundamental and Application Physics (TIFPA), Italy
3.333333
0.00
Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica "Michelangelo Merlin", Italy
3.250000
0.00
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), United States of America (USA)
3.000000
0.00
Blagoveschensk State Pedagogical University (BSPU), Russia
3.000000
0.00
Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute, Kazakhstan
3.000000
0.00
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), United States of America (USA)
3.000000
0.00
INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy
3.000000
0.00
Waseda University, Japan
3.000000
0.00
Pusan National University (PNU), South Korea
3.000000
0.00
University of Rochester (UR), United States of America (USA)
3.000000
0.00
University of California, Irvine (UCI), United States of America (USA)
3.000000
0.00
WPI Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI Kavli IPMU), UTokyo, Japan
3.000000
0.00
Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP), Germany
3.000000
0.00
University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), United States of America (USA)
3.000000
0.00
Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT, Inc.), United States of America (USA)
3.000000
0.00
University of Würzburg (JMU), Germany
3.000000
0.00
University of Bologna (UNIBO), Italy
3.000000
0.00
American University, United States of America (USA)
3.000000
0.00
Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), France
3.000000
0.00
University of Miyazaki, Japan
3.000000
0.00
National Central University (NCU), Taiwan
3.000000
0.00
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), India
3.000000
0.00
Beijing Normal University (BNU), China
3.000000
0.00
Herbert H. Lehman College of the City University of New York (CUNY Lehman College), United States of America (USA)
3.000000
0.00
Linnaeus University (LNU), Sweden
3.000000
0.00
National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), Mexico
3.000000
0.00
Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), Germany
3.000000
0.00
Institute of Applied Physics (IAP), RAS, Russia
3.000000
0.00
McGill University, Canada
3.000000
0.00
Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), India
3.000000
0.00
Yunnan Observatories (YNAO), NAOC CAS, China
3.000000
0.00
North-West University (NWU), South Africa
3.000000
0.00
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay), India
3.000000
0.00
University of Genova, Italy
3.000000
0.00
University of Wisconsin-River Falls (UWRF), United States of America (USA)
3.000000
0.00
Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (CINVESTAV), Mexico
3.000000
0.00
Institute for Planetary Sciences and Astrophysics, Grenoble (IPAG), France
3.000000
0.00
University of Canterbury (UC), New Zealand
3.000000
0.00
The University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB), United States of America (USA)
2.833333
0.00
Australian Astronomical Observatory (AAO), Australia
2.700000
0.00
University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom (UK)
2.666667
0.00
University of Haute-Alsace (UHA), France
2.666667
0.00
Nanjing University (NJU), China
2.500000
0.00
The University of Melbourne (UniMelb), Australia
2.500000
0.00
Irkutsk State University (ISU), Russia
2.500000
0.00
University of Chile, Chile
2.500000
0.00
The University of Arizona (Arizona), United States of America (USA)
2.500000
0.00
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram (IISER TVM), India
2.500000
0.00
INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Turin (OATO), Italy
2.500000
0.00
University of Málaga (UMA), Spain
2.500000
0.00
Astrophysics, Instrumentation and Modelling (AIM), France
2.500000
0.00
University of Siena (UNISI), Italy
2.500000
0.00
Washington State University (WSU), United States of America (USA)
2.500000
0.00
Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias (IAC), Spain
2.500000
0.00
University of Sannio, Italy
2.500000
0.00
INAF - Institute of Space Astrophysics and Cosmic Physics of Palermo (IASF Palermo), Italy
2.500000
0.00
University of Trento (UNITN), Italy
2.333333
0.00
Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS), Ireland
2.333333
0.00
National Astronomical Observatories (NAOC), CAS, China
2.333333
0.00
Université Mohammed Premier (UMP), Morocco
2.333333
0.00
The University of Manchester (UoM), United Kingdom (UK)
2.333333
0.00
Institute for Research in Astronomy and Astrophysics (IAFE CONICET-UBA), Argentina
2.250000
0.00
University of Trieste (UNITS), Italy
2.200000
0.00
Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (RMKI), HAS, Hungary
2.000000
0.00
University of Groningen (RUG), Netherlands
2.000000
0.00
ESPCI Paris - PSL, France
2.000000
0.00
The College of William & Mary (W&M), United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Instituto de Ciencias Astronómicas, de la Tierra y del Espacio (ICATE CONICET-UNSJ), Argentina
2.000000
0.00
Center for Theoretical Physics, PAS, Poland
2.000000
0.00
University of Münster (WWU), Germany
2.000000
0.00
University of Milan (UNIMI), Italy
2.000000
0.00
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Brazil
2.000000
0.00
University of Perugia, Italy
2.000000
0.00
Charles University (CU), Czech Republic
2.000000
0.00
Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI), South Korea
2.000000
0.00
Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Brazil
2.000000
0.00
University of Valparaíso (UV), Chile
2.000000
0.00
Instituto de Física Rosario (IFIR CONICET-UNR), Argentina
2.000000
0.00
Jacobs, United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Royal Observatory Edinburgh (ROE), United Kingdom (UK)
2.000000
0.00
Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Denmark
2.000000
0.00
Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad (IITH), India
2.000000
0.00
Astronomical Institute, CAS, Czech Republic
2.000000
0.00
University of California, Merced (UC Merced), United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Kanagawa University, Japan
2.000000
0.00
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT), United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Hobart and William Smith Colleges, United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational-Sciences (ARIES), India
2.000000
0.00
NSF National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA), TIFR, India
2.000000
0.00
Arizona State University (ASU), United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
The University of Kansas (KU), United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata (IISER Kolkata), India
2.000000
0.00
Inje University, South Korea
2.000000
0.00
Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Spain
2.000000
0.00
University of Washington Bothell (UW Bothell), UW, United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HUJI), Israel
2.000000
0.00
Montclair State University, United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
INFN Section in Pavia, Italy
2.000000
0.00
Autonomous University of Hidalgo State (UAEH), Mexico
2.000000
0.00
Centre for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
University of Iceland, Iceland
2.000000
0.00
University of Szeged (SZTE), Hungary
2.000000
0.00
Clemson University, United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), France
2.000000
0.00
Montana State University, United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
George Mason University (GMU), United States of America (USA)
2.000000
0.00
Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca (UPP), Mexico
2.000000
0.00
University of Bath, United Kingdom (UK)
2.000000
0.00
Karl Schwarzschild Observatory (TLS), Germany
2.000000
0.00
GEOAZUR, France
2.000000
0.00
University of Turin (UNITO), Italy
2.000000
0.00
Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (LMU), Germany
1.833333
0.00
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Germany
1.833333
0.00
University of California, Davis (UC Davis), United States of America (USA)
1.750000
0.00
ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery (OzGrav), Australia
1.700000
0.00
INFN Section in Trieste, Italy
1.550000
0.00
Andres Bello University (UNAB), Chile
1.500000
0.00
Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil
1.500000
0.00
Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), MCTIC, Brazil
1.500000
0.00
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), United States of America (USA)
1.500000
0.00
Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS), Slovenia
1.500000
0.00
Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), JPL, United States of America (USA)
1.500000
0.00
Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Brazil
1.500000
0.00
Institute for High Energy Physics (IFAE), BIST, Spain
1.500000
0.00
University of Salerno (UNISA), Italy
1.500000
0.00
Centro de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones (CEILAP CONICET-CITEFA), Argentina
1.500000
0.00
Colorado State University, United States of America (USA)
1.500000
0.00
Institute of Scientific and Technical Research for Defense (CITEDEF), Argentina
1.500000
0.00
Centre for Star and Planet Formation (STARPLAN), Denmark
1.500000
0.00
Leiden University, Netherlands
1.500000
0.00
University Institute of France (IUF), France
1.500000
0.00
Institute of Mathematics, PAS, Poland
1.500000
0.00
University of Guadalajara (UDG), Mexico
1.333333
0.00
Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Chile
1.285714
0.00
University of Buenos Aires (UBA), Argentina
1.166667
0.00
TUM Cluster of Excellence - Origin and Structure of the Universe (Excellence Cluster Universe), Germany
1.166667
0.00
Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Spain
1.000000
0.00
New York University (NYU), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, Georgia
1.000000
0.00
USAF Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP), SB RAS, Russia
1.000000
0.00
Politehnica University of Bucharest (UPB), Romania
1.000000
0.00
State University of Feira de Santana (UEFS), Brazil
1.000000
0.00
University of Toronto (U of T), Canada
1.000000
0.00
CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), Australia
1.000000
0.00
University of Leeds, United Kingdom (UK)
1.000000
0.00
Peripety Scientific Ltd., New Zealand
1.000000
0.00
Northeastern University (NEU), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Institut für Experimentalphysik (IEXP), Germany
1.000000
0.00
Harvard University, United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
University of L'Aquila (UNIVAQ), Italy
1.000000
0.00
Konkoly Observatory, HAS, Hungary
1.000000
0.00
University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), Chile
1.000000
0.00
Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), RAS, Russia
1.000000
0.00
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd. (NIWA), New Zealand
1.000000
0.00
Federal University of ABC (UFABC), Brazil
1.000000
0.00
The University of Auckland, New Zealand
1.000000
0.00
National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Argentina
1.000000
0.00
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (AMU), Poland
1.000000
0.00
RIKEN BioResource Research Center (BRC), Japan
1.000000
0.00
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (NCU), Poland
1.000000
0.00
Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO), Ukraine
1.000000
0.00
Federal Center for Technological Education Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Brazil
1.000000
0.00
Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Brazil
1.000000
0.00
Institute of Applied Physics "Nello Carrara" (IFAC), CNR, Italy
1.000000
0.00
Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), Poland
1.000000
0.00
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), India
1.000000
0.00
University of Cape Town (UCT), South Africa
1.000000
0.00
The University of Texas at Arlington (UTA), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
1.000000
0.00
European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), ESA, Netherlands
1.000000
0.00
Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), Italy
1.000000
0.00
Whitman College (Whitman), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras), India
1.000000
0.00
Tohoku University, Japan
1.000000
0.00
Nanjing Normal University (NNU), China
1.000000
0.00
Pegaso University (Unipegaso), Italy
1.000000
0.00
Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), France
1.000000
0.00
Clark Atlanta University (CAU), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Hanyang University (HYU), South Korea
1.000000
0.00
Hillsdale College, United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
University of Johannesburg (UJ), South Africa
1.000000
0.00
University of Białystok (UWB), Poland
1.000000
0.00
NYCB Real-Time Computing Inc., United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Purdue University Northwest (PNW), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Catania, Italy
1.000000
0.00
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
University of Zurich (UZH), Switzerland
1.000000
0.00
Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar (IIT Gandhinagar), India
1.000000
0.00
Trinity University, United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
University of Bergen (UIB), Norway
1.000000
0.00
Inter-University Consortium for Space Physics (CIFS), Italy
1.000000
0.00
Andrews University, United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Brazil
1.000000
0.00
University of Surrey, United Kingdom (UK)
1.000000
0.00
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
King's College London (KCL), United Kingdom (UK)
1.000000
0.00
Ohio University (Ohio), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Institute for Theoretical Physics (IFT), Spain
1.000000
0.00
National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Spain
1.000000
0.00
University of Sussex, United Kingdom (UK)
1.000000
0.00
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Centre of Astrobiology (CAB), CSIC-INTA, Spain
1.000000
0.00
The University of Nottingham (UoN), United Kingdom (UK)
1.000000
0.00
Joint Space-Science Institute (JSI), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
VU Amsterdam, Netherlands
1.000000
0.00
University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Sonoma State University (SSU), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Charles Sturt University (CSU), Australia
1.000000
0.00
Yale University, United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan
1.000000
0.00
University of Mons (UMONS), Belgium
1.000000
0.00
Fonctions Optiques pour les Technologies de l'Information (FOTON), France
1.000000
0.00
Flatiron Institute, Simons Foundation, United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Laboratory (SNOLAB), Canada
1.000000
0.00
Unité Mixte Internationale Franco-Chilienne d'Astronomie (UMI-FCA), Chile
1.000000
0.00
National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Italy
1.000000
0.00
University of Pittsburgh (Pitt), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Lancaster University, United Kingdom (UK)
1.000000
0.00
University of Camerino (UNICAM), Italy
1.000000
0.00
Chennai Mathematical Institute (CMI), India
1.000000
0.00
Gemini Observatory Southern Operations Center, Chile
1.000000
0.00
University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Indian Institute of Advanced Research (IIAR), India
1.000000
0.00
University of St Andrews, United Kingdom (UK)
1.000000
0.00
The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom (UK)
1.000000
0.00
University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), Australia
1.000000
0.00
Marquette University, United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Orangewave Innovative Science, LLC, United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
United States Air Force Academy (USAFA), United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Auragne Observatory, France
1.000000
0.00
Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, RAS, Russia
1.000000
0.00
Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), India
1.000000
0.00
Massey University, New Zealand
1.000000
0.00
Centre National de l'Energie, des Sciences et des Techniques Nuclaires / Rabat (CNESTEN), Morocco
1.000000
0.00
Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Spain
1.000000
0.00
Osaka Metropolitan University (OMU), Japan
1.000000
0.00
Kagoshima University, Japan
1.000000
0.00
Bellevue College, United States of America (USA)
1.000000
0.00
Toho University, Japan
1.000000
0.00
Istanbul University, Turkey
1.000000
0.00
Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA), Australia
0.833333
0.00
Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT), NAOC CAS, China
0.833333
0.00
National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia (NAS), Armenia
0.833333
0.00
National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Argentina
0.583333
0.00
SUBATECH, France
0.500000
0.00
University of Zielona Góra (UZ), Poland
0.500000
0.00
Abilene Christian University, United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
University of Lyon, France
0.500000
0.00
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology - State University (MIPT), Russia
0.500000
0.00
INFN Gruppo Collegato di Parma, Italy
0.500000
0.00
University of Parma (UNIPR), Italy
0.500000
0.00
Leiden Observatory (STRW), Netherlands
0.500000
0.00
Chalmers University of Technology (Chalmers), Sweden
0.500000
0.00
Il Museo della Fisica e il Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi (Centro Fermi), Italy
0.500000
0.00
Claude Bernard University Lyon 1 (UCBL), France
0.500000
0.00
University of La Laguna (ULL), Spain
0.500000
0.00
Scientific Centre of Monaco (CSM), Monaco
0.500000
0.00
Johns Hopkins University (JHU), United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy
0.500000
0.00
Galaxies, Stars, Physics and Instrumentation (GEPI), France
0.500000
0.00
Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), Finland
0.500000
0.00
Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS), Germany
0.500000
0.00
International Centre for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Italy
0.500000
0.00
University of Notre Dame (ND), United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics - Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
San Diego State University (SDSU), United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
Ingeniería de Sistemas para la Defensa de España (ISDEFE), Spain
0.500000
0.00
European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), ESA, Spain
0.500000
0.00
Adler Planetarium, United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
Konan University, Japan
0.500000
0.00
ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), Australia
0.500000
0.00
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune (IISER Pune), India
0.500000
0.00
Nançay Radioastronomy Station (USN), France
0.500000
0.00
Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'Environnement et de l'Espace (LPC2E), France
0.500000
0.00
Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (NORDITA), Sweden
0.500000
0.00
A. Alikhanyan National Laboratory (AANL) / Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi), Armenia
0.500000
0.00
INAF - Astronomical Observatory of Trieste (OATs), Italy
0.500000
0.00
University of Paris-Sud (UPSud), France
0.500000
0.00
Laboratoire de Physique de Clermont (LPC), France
0.500000
0.00
Laboratoire d’Informatique et Systèmes (LIS), France
0.500000
0.00
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), NWO-I, Netherlands
0.500000
0.00
Utrecht University (UU), Netherlands
0.500000
0.00
NASA Astrophysics Science Division (ASD), United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
National Science Foundation (NSF), United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
East Windsor Regional Schools, United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich), Switzerland
0.500000
0.00
Indiana University Bloomington (IUB), United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
Brandeis University, United States of America (USA)
0.500000
0.00
University of Milano-Bicocca (UNIMIB), Italy
0.500000
0.00
University of Insubria, Italy
0.500000
0.00
The University of Hong Kong (HKU), China
0.400000
0.00
Guilin University of Electronic Technology (GUET), China
0.333333
0.00
Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO), CAS, China
0.333333
0.00
National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), Russia
0.333333
0.00
National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Russia
0.333333
0.00
Tianjin Normal University (TJNU), China
0.333333
0.00
Square Kilometre Array (SKA Organisation), United Kingdom (UK)
0.333333
0.00
Space Science Institute (SSI), United States of America (USA)
0.285714
0.00
Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy
0.250000
0.00
Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Japan
0.000000
0.00