Frequently asked questions

1. What data is held in the Nature Index?

The Nature Index database captures all affiliation information of primary research articles published within 145 natural-science and health-science journals that were selected based on reputation by a panel of active scientists, independently of Springer Nature. It also includes links to the abstracts of those articles. It stores whole article counts (referred to by the metric, Count) and fractional article counts (Share) for each article. Behind the snapshot of data published on the website is a database containing the English names, local language names and acronyms of the parent institutions associated with articles tracked by the Nature Index.

2. Why isn’t my article in the Nature Index?

The Index is updated periodically, so there can be a time lag between when your article is published and when it is added to the Nature Index. Your article may be excluded because it was not a primary research article. Sometimes articles may be missed due to technical difficulties. If you believe this may have happened to a particular article, please .

3. Why isn’t my institution in the Nature Index?

Only institutions with at least one affiliated author on a primary research article published in one of the 145 journals tracked by the index will appear in the Nature Index.

4. Which articles are selected for inclusion in the Nature Index? Are all articles treated equally?

The Nature Index includes only primary research articles published in the 145 selected journals tracked by the Nature Index. For a small number of large physics journals only primary articles identified by the journals as having higher importance, more urgency or more interest for the community are included: notably, articles classified as ‘Highlighted articles’ or ‘Rapid Communications’ from Physical Review A, Physical Review B and Physical Review D; and articles classified as ‘Letters’ from Astronomy and Astrophysics.

All articles are treated equally when ordering institutions and countries by Count and Share.

5. How were journals selected for inclusion in the Nature Index?

The journals tracked by the Nature Index were selected based on reputation by panels of actively publishing scientists. The selections were made independently of Springer Nature, and validated by a subsequent survey of global researchers. Panelists and survey respondents were asked to list the journals they would most like to publish in and were asked not to consider the Journal Impact Factor. It is intended that the list of journals amounts to a reasonably consensual upper echelon of journals in the natural sciences and health sciences. It includes both multidisciplinary journals and some of the most highly selective journals within the main disciplines of the natural sciences and health sciences.

The composition and total number of journals included in the Nature Index is reviewed on an ongoing basis. The current list of 145 journals was expanded in June 2023 (see Health sciences added to the Nature Index).

6. Why are articles from only 145 journals included? Why not more?

The selection panels of scientists aimed to ensure there were enough journals to cover many disciplines while maintaining selectivity so that the chosen journals truly reflect the upper tiers of research achievement as judged by peers. The composition and total number of journals included in the Nature Index is reviewed on a regular basis, with the current revised list of 145 journals released in June 2023. The revision and expansion of the Nature Index journals encompasses a number of changes from the original release, including better representation of each of the subjects covered and the inclusion of new journals that were not available when the index was first released. For more information on the selection of Nature Index journals, see Introducing the Index, Revisions to the Nature Index and Health sciences added to the Nature Index.

7. How is article output counted?

Article output is counted in two ways:

  1. Count: where a Count of one is assigned to an institution or country/territory if one or more authors of the research article are from that institution or country/territory, regardless of how many co-authors there are from outside that institution or country/territory.
  2. Share: an institution’s or country/territory’s Share takes into account the percentage of authors from that institution or country/territory and the number of affiliated institutions per article. For calculation of the Share, all authors are considered to have contributed equally to the article. The maximum combined Share for any article is 1.0.

The ratio of Count to Share gives an indication of the degree to which an institution or country/territory collaborates in its research. Broadly speaking, if the Count is a lot higher than the Share it indicates a high degree of external collaboration and dependency on external resources. If the Count is close in value to the Share it indicates limited collaboration with external researchers and a strong dependency on internal resources.

8. How are the journals and articles categorized by subject?

Research articles are assigned to subjects based on the scientific discipline of the journal in which they are published, with the exception of multidisciplinary journals – Nature, Nature Communications, PNAS, Science and Science Advances. For these journals, subjects are assigned at the article level. Research articles can be assigned to more than one subject. View the complete list of journals in each subject.

9. What is the difference between the ‘Current Index’ and the ‘Annual tables’?

The tables in the ‘Current Index’ represent a dataset for a 12-month rolling window, which is updated monthly. The tables include all institutions and countries/territories with research outputs within the 12-month rolling window. The current date range is clearly indicated. The ‘Annual tables’ are a snapshot of data for one, full calendar year, listing the leading institutions and countries/territories by region/country, sector, and broad subject area.

10. The Nature Index journals

The current 12-month window on nature.com/nature-index/ includes data from primary research articles from the following science journals:

  • ACS Nano (1792 articles)
  • Advanced Functional Materials (2672 articles)
  • Advanced Materials (2059 articles)
  • American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (225 articles)
  • American Journal of Epidemiology (62 articles)
  • American Journal of Human Genetics (131 articles)
  • American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (147 articles)
  • American Journal of Pathology (117 articles)
  • American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (82 articles)
  • Analytical Chemistry (2143 articles)
  • Anesthesiology (65 articles)
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition (3136 articles)
  • Annals of Emergency Medicine (87 articles)
  • Annals of Family Medicine (49 articles)
  • Annals of Internal Medicine (96 articles)
  • Annals of Neurology (176 articles)
  • Annals of Surgery (11 articles)
  • Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (111 articles)
  • Applied Physics Letters (2217 articles)
  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (145 articles)
  • Arthritis & Rheumatology (10 articles)
  • Astronomy & Astrophysics (166 articles)
  • Blood (206 articles)
  • Brain (164 articles)
  • British Journal of Surgery (123 articles)
  • Cancer Cell (103 articles)
  • Cancer Research (237 articles)
  • Cell (285 articles)
  • Cell Host & Microbe (108 articles)
  • Cell Metabolism (116 articles)
  • Cell Stem Cell (75 articles)
  • Chemical Communications (2353 articles)
  • Chemical Science (1246 articles)
  • Chest (153 articles)
  • Circulation (141 articles)
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases (295 articles)
  • Critical Care Medicine (98 articles)
  • Current Biology (485 articles)
  • Developmental Cell (176 articles)
  • Diabetes Care (161 articles)
  • Earth and Planetary Science Letters (343 articles)
  • Ecology Letters (143 articles)
  • Environmental Health Perspectives (125 articles)
  • Environmental Science and Technology (1636 articles)
  • European Heart Journal (138 articles)
  • European Physical Journal C (1150 articles)
  • European Urology (22 articles)
  • Gastroenterology (129 articles)
  • Genes & Development (48 articles)
  • Genome Research (143 articles)
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (362 articles)
  • Geology (235 articles)
  • Geophysical Research Letters (1453 articles)
  • Gut (90 articles)
  • Hepatology (104 articles)
  • Human Reproduction (193 articles)
  • Immunity (143 articles)
  • Inorganic Chemistry (2096 articles)
  • International Journal of Epidemiology (80 articles)
  • International Journal of Obesity (125 articles)
  • JAMA Internal Medicine (93 articles)
  • JAMA Pediatrics (89 articles)
  • JAMA Psychiatry (106 articles)
  • JAMA Surgery (118 articles)
  • JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association (150 articles)
  • Journal of Biological Chemistry (1068 articles)
  • Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume (163 articles)
  • Journal of Cell Biology (201 articles)
  • Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (385 articles)
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation (353 articles)
  • Journal of Clinical Oncology (195 articles)
  • Journal of Experimental Medicine (142 articles)
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (721 articles)
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (533 articles)
  • Journal of Hepatology (128 articles)
  • Journal of High Energy Physics (2424 articles)
  • Journal of Infectious Diseases (215 articles)
  • Journal of Neuroscience (526 articles)
  • Journal of Physiology (173 articles)
  • Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (98 articles)
  • Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (41 articles)
  • Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (96 articles)
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society (2705 articles)
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology (194 articles)
  • Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (258 articles)
  • Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (101 articles)
  • Journal of the National Cancer Institute (120 articles)
  • Kidney International (100 articles)
  • Macromolecules (875 articles)
  • Molecular Cell (234 articles)
  • Molecular Psychiatry (313 articles)
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters (181 articles)
  • Nano Letters (1414 articles)
  • Nature (1127 articles)
  • Nature Biotechnology (179 articles)
  • Nature Cell Biology (120 articles)
  • Nature Chemical Biology (144 articles)
  • Nature Chemistry (190 articles)
  • Nature Climate Change (103 articles)
  • Nature Communications (7760 articles)
  • Nature Genetics (177 articles)
  • Nature Geoscience (135 articles)
  • Nature Immunology (129 articles)
  • Nature Materials (155 articles)
  • Nature Medicine (230 articles)
  • Nature Methods (164 articles)
  • Nature Nanotechnology (180 articles)
  • Nature Neuroscience (157 articles)
  • Nature Photonics (129 articles)
  • Nature Physics (233 articles)
  • Nature Structural & Molecular Biology (172 articles)
  • Neuron (198 articles)
  • Ophthalmology (118 articles)
  • Organic Letters (1732 articles)
  • PLOS Biology (303 articles)
  • PLOS Genetics (380 articles)
  • PLOS Medicine (148 articles)
  • Pediatrics (150 articles)
  • Physical Review A (154 articles)
  • Physical Review B (766 articles)
  • Physical Review D (217 articles)
  • Physical Review Letters (1875 articles)
  • Physical Review X (149 articles)
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2852 articles)
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society B (465 articles)
  • Radiology (175 articles)
  • Science (551 articles)
  • Science Advances (2030 articles)
  • Science Translational Medicine (240 articles)
  • The Astrophysical Journal Letters (681 articles)
  • The BMJ (121 articles)
  • The EMBO Journal (246 articles)
  • The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology (177 articles)
  • The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (166 articles)
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (1382 articles)
  • The Lancet (149 articles)
  • The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (36 articles)
  • The Lancet Global Health (115 articles)
  • The Lancet Neurology (37 articles)
  • The Lancet Oncology (93 articles)
  • The Lancet Psychiatry (50 articles)
  • The New England Journal of Medicine (205 articles)
  • The Plant Cell (168 articles)
  • Thorax (66 articles)
  • Water Research (1224 articles)

11. Regions

  • Africa

    • Algeria
    • Angola
    • Benin
    • Botswana
    • Burkina Faso
    • Burundi
    • Cameroon
    • Cape Verde
    • Central African Republic
    • Chad
    • Comoros
    • Congo
    • Djibouti
    • Egypt
    • Equatorial Guinea
    • Eritrea
    • Ethiopia
    • Gabon
    • Gambia
    • Ghana
    • Guinea
    • Guinea-Bissau
    • Ivory Coast
    • Kenya
    • Lesotho
    • Liberia
    • Libya
    • Madagascar
    • Malawi
    • Mali
    • Mauritania
    • Mauritius
    • Mayotte
    • Morocco
    • Mozambique
    • Namibia
    • Niger
    • Nigeria
    • Reunion
    • Rwanda
    • Sao Tome and Principe
    • Senegal
    • Seychelles
    • Sierra Leone
    • Somalia
    • South Africa
    • Sudan
    • Swaziland
    • Tanzania
    • Togo
    • Tunisia
    • Western Sahara
    • Uganda
    • Zambia
    • Zimbabwe
  • Asia Pacific

    • Australia
    • Bangladesh
    • Bhutan
    • Brunei
    • Cambodia
    • China
    • Cook Islands
    • East Timor
    • Fiji
    • French Polynesia
    • India
    • Indonesia
    • Japan
    • Kiribati
    • Laos
    • Malaysia
    • Maldives
    • Marshall Islands
    • Micronesia
    • Mongolia
    • Myanmar
    • Nauru
    • Nepal
    • New Zealand
    • Niue
    • North Korea
    • Palau
    • Papua New Guinea
    • Philippines
    • Samoa
    • Singapore
    • Solomon Islands
    • South Korea
    • Sri Lanka
    • Taiwan
    • Thailand
    • Tokelau
    • Tonga
    • Tuvalu
    • Vanuatu
    • Vietnam
    • Wallis and Futuna Islands
  • Europe

    • Albania
    • Andorra
    • Armenia
    • Austria
    • Belarus
    • Belgium
    • Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • Bulgaria
    • Croatia
    • Cyprus
    • Czech Republic
    • Denmark
    • Estonia
    • Faroe Islands
    • Finland
    • France
    • Germany
    • Greece
    • Hungary
    • Iceland
    • Ireland
    • Italy
    • Kosovo
    • Latvia
    • Liechtenstein
    • Lithuania
    • Luxembourg
    • Macedonia
    • Malta
    • Moldova
    • Monaco
    • Montenegro
    • Netherlands
    • Norway
    • Poland
    • Portugal
    • Romania
    • Russia
    • San Marino
    • Serbia
    • Slovakia
    • Slovenia
    • Spain
    • Sweden
    • Switzerland
    • Ukraine
    • United Kingdom (UK)
    • Vatican City State (Holy See)
  • North America

    • Antigua and Barbuda
    • Aruba
    • Bahamas
    • Barbados
    • Belize
    • Canada
    • Costa Rica
    • Cuba
    • Dominica
    • Dominican Republic
    • El Salvador
    • Greenland
    • Grenada
    • Guadeloupe
    • Guatemala
    • Haiti
    • Honduras
    • Jamaica
    • Martinique
    • Mexico
    • Netherlands Antilles
    • Nicaragua
    • Panama
    • Saint Kitts and Nevis
    • Saint Lucia
    • Saint Vincent and The Grenadines
    • St. Pierre and Miquelon
    • Trinidad and Tobago
    • United States of America (USA)
  • South America

    • Argentina
    • Bolivia
    • Brazil
    • Chile
    • Colombia
    • Ecuador
    • Guyana
    • Paraguay
    • Peru
    • S. Georgia and S. Sandwich Isls.
    • Suriname
    • Uruguay
    • Venezuela
  • Western Asia

    • Armenia
    • Afghanistan
    • Azerbaijan
    • Bahrain
    • Georgia
    • Iran
    • Iraq
    • Israel
    • Jordan
    • Kazakhstan
    • Kuwait
    • Kyrgyzstan
    • Lebanon
    • Oman
    • Palestine
    • Pakistan
    • Qatar
    • Saudi Arabia
    • Syria
    • Tajikistan
    • Turkey
    • Turkmenistan
    • United Arab Emirates
    • Uzbekistan
    • Yemen

12. Subjects/journal groups

  • Biological sciences

    • American Journal of Human Genetics
    • Cancer Cell
    • Cancer Research
    • Cell
    • Cell Host & Microbe
    • Cell Metabolism
    • Cell Stem Cell
    • Current Biology
    • Developmental Cell
    • Ecology Letters
    • Genes & Development
    • Genome Research
    • Immunity
    • Journal of Biological Chemistry
    • Journal of Cell Biology
    • Journal of Clinical Investigation
    • Journal of Experimental Medicine
    • Journal of Neuroscience
    • Molecular Cell
    • Molecular Psychiatry
    • Nature (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Biotechnology
    • Nature Cell Biology
    • Nature Chemical Biology
    • Nature Communications (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Genetics
    • Nature Immunology
    • Nature Methods
    • Nature Neuroscience
    • Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
    • Neuron
    • PLOS Biology
    • PLOS Genetics
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Proceedings of the Royal Society B
    • Science (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Science Advances (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Science Translational Medicine
    • The EMBO Journal
    • The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology
    • The Plant Cell
  • Chemistry

    • Advanced Materials
    • Analytical Chemistry
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition
    • Chemical Communications
    • Chemical Science
    • Inorganic Chemistry
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society
    • Macromolecules
    • Nano Letters
    • Nature (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Chemical Biology
    • Nature Chemistry
    • Nature Communications (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Materials
    • Nature Nanotechnology
    • Organic Letters
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Science (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Science Advances (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
  • Earth & environmental sciences

    • Earth and Planetary Science Letters
    • Ecology Letters
    • Environmental Science and Technology
    • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
    • Geology
    • Geophysical Research Letters
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
    • Nature (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Climate Change
    • Nature Communications (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Geoscience
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Science (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Science Advances (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Water Research
  • Health sciences

    • American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
    • American Journal of Epidemiology
    • American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
    • American Journal of Pathology
    • American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
    • Anesthesiology
    • Annals of Emergency Medicine
    • Annals of Family Medicine
    • Annals of Internal Medicine
    • Annals of Neurology
    • Annals of Surgery
    • Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
    • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
    • Arthritis & Rheumatology
    • Blood
    • Brain
    • British Journal of Surgery
    • Chest
    • Circulation
    • Clinical Infectious Diseases
    • Critical Care Medicine
    • Diabetes Care
    • Environmental Health Perspectives
    • European Heart Journal
    • European Urology
    • Gastroenterology
    • Gut
    • Hepatology
    • Human Reproduction
    • International Journal of Epidemiology
    • International Journal of Obesity
    • JAMA Internal Medicine
    • JAMA Pediatrics
    • JAMA Psychiatry
    • JAMA Surgery
    • JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association
    • Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American Volume
    • Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
    • Journal of Clinical Oncology
    • Journal of Hepatology
    • Journal of Infectious Diseases
    • Journal of Physiology
    • Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
    • Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    • Journal of the American College of Cardiology
    • Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    • Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
    • Journal of the National Cancer Institute
    • Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
    • Kidney International
    • Nature (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Communications (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Medicine
    • Ophthalmology
    • Pediatrics
    • PLOS Medicine
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Radiology
    • Science (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Science Advances (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • The BMJ
    • The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
    • The Lancet
    • The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
    • The Lancet Global Health
    • The Lancet Neurology
    • The Lancet Oncology
    • The Lancet Psychiatry
    • The New England Journal of Medicine
    • Thorax
  • Physical sciences

    • ACS Nano
    • Advanced Functional Materials
    • Advanced Materials
    • Applied Physics Letters
    • Astronomy & Astrophysics
    • European Physical Journal C
    • Journal of High Energy Physics
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters
    • Nano Letters
    • Nature (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Communications (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Nature Materials
    • Nature Nanotechnology
    • Nature Photonics
    • Nature Physics
    • Physical Review A
    • Physical Review B
    • Physical Review D
    • Physical Review Letters
    • Physical Review X
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Science (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • Science Advances (only articles classified in this subject area)
    • The Astrophysical Journal Letters
  • Nature & Science

    • Nature
    • Science
  • Natural sciences

    • ACS Nano
    • Advanced Functional Materials
    • Advanced Materials
    • American Journal of Human Genetics
    • Analytical Chemistry
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition
    • Applied Physics Letters
    • Astronomy & Astrophysics
    • Cancer Cell
    • Cancer Research
    • Cell
    • Cell Host & Microbe
    • Cell Metabolism
    • Cell Stem Cell
    • Chemical Communications
    • Chemical Science
    • Current Biology
    • Developmental Cell
    • Earth and Planetary Science Letters
    • Ecology Letters
    • Environmental Science and Technology
    • European Physical Journal C
    • Genes & Development
    • Genome Research
    • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
    • Geology
    • Geophysical Research Letters
    • Immunity
    • Inorganic Chemistry
    • Journal of Biological Chemistry
    • Journal of Cell Biology
    • Journal of Clinical Investigation
    • Journal of Experimental Medicine
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth
    • Journal of High Energy Physics
    • Journal of Neuroscience
    • Journal of the American Chemical Society
    • Macromolecules
    • Molecular Cell
    • Molecular Psychiatry
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters
    • Nano Letters
    • Nature
    • Nature Biotechnology
    • Nature Cell Biology
    • Nature Chemical Biology
    • Nature Chemistry
    • Nature Climate Change
    • Nature Communications
    • Nature Genetics
    • Nature Geoscience
    • Nature Immunology
    • Nature Materials
    • Nature Methods
    • Nature Nanotechnology
    • Nature Neuroscience
    • Nature Photonics
    • Nature Physics
    • Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
    • Neuron
    • Organic Letters
    • PLOS Biology
    • PLOS Genetics
    • Physical Review A
    • Physical Review B
    • Physical Review D
    • Physical Review Letters
    • Physical Review X
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
    • Proceedings of the Royal Society B
    • Science
    • Science Advances
    • Science Translational Medicine
    • The Astrophysical Journal Letters
    • The EMBO Journal
    • The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology
    • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
    • The Plant Cell
    • Water Research