Glossary of terms

Adjusted Share

When comparing data over time, Share values are adjusted to account for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. It's arrived by calculating the percentage difference in the total number of articles in the Index in a given year relative to the number of articles in a base year and adjusting Share values to the based year levels.

Affiliated institution

An institution that is wholly owned, operated, administered or contains research facilities for another institution. All affiliations for an affiliated institution are credited to the institution to which it is affiliated.

Affiliated joint institution

A research facility operated jointly by multiple institutions. Each partner institution of the joint institution receives an equivalent Share for every affiliation in which the joint institution is included.

Affiliated joint institutions and consortia

Represents joint institutions and consortia for which the institution is designated as a partner institution.


An affiliation as listed on a scientific paper is the institution to which an author belonged at the time the research was conducted. Each affiliation on a paper in the Nature Index scores a Count of one for the named institution.

Collaboration score (CS)

A collaboration can be between any two institutions or locations co-authoring at least one article in the journals tracked by the Nature Index. The collaboration score between two institutions or countries/regions is the sum of each of their Shares on the papers to which both have contributed.


Indicates research partnerships between multiple institutions. Each partner institution of a consortium receives an equivalent Share for every affiliation in which the consortium is included. Often consortia are international and in some cases there is no home research facility.


A Count of one is assigned to an institution or country/region if one or more authors of the research article are from that institution or country/region, regardless of how many co-authors there are from outside that institution or country/region.


A digital object identifier, a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when an article is published and made available electronically.

Funding institution

An institution that funds research and is not responsible for the administration of the research or research itself. Affiliations that are deemed to be from funding institutions do not receive a Share, except where a funding institution has its own research facilities, in which cases those affiliations will receive a Share.


A unique institution tracked by the Nature Index. Institutions are the primary organisational entity in the Nature Index. The Count or Share of an institution may include contributions from that institution’s faculties, schools, institutes, departments or subsidiaries.


The metrics referring to research articles tracked by the Nature Index for which a particular institution or country/region has at least one affiliation. An institution’s or country/region’s outputs in the Nature Index are Count and Share.

Partner institutions

The institutions that together own, operate, administer or have responsibility for research facilities and/or activities at the relevant joint institution or consortium.


Groups of countries organized into major regions of the world. In some cases, continental borders do not define a region. See here for a list of countries included in each region.


Institutions in the Nature Index are categorized according to five sectors. They are

  • Academic - an institution dedicated to education and research, which grants academic degrees (e.g. university)
  • Corporate - a company or group of people authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person), recognized as such in law, with the goal to earn profit. (Independent) consultants are also considered as corporate.
  • Government - A government-funded organization with the primary mission of performing or promoting basic research and/or applied research.
  • Healthcare - Nature Index uses the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification as a basic framework for defining the institutions in the healthcare sector. The UN categorizes health care as generally consisting of hospital activities, medical and dental practice activities, and "other human health activities". The last class involves activities of, or under the supervision of, nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, scientific or diagnostic laboratories, pathology clinics, residential health facilities, or other allied health professions, e.g. in the field of optometry, hydrotherapy, medical massage, yoga therapy, music therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, chiropody, homeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.
  • NPO/NGO - a non-profit organization (NPO) uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals rather than distributing them as profit or dividends. A non-governmental organization (NGO) refers to an organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business. Both NGOs and NPOs may be funded by governments, foundations, businesses, or private persons.


A fractional count allocated to an institution or country/region for an article that takes into account the percentage of authors from that institution or country/region and the number of affiliated institutions that contributed to the article. For calculation of Share, all authors are considered to have contributed equally to the article. The maximum combined Share for any article is 1.0.


Macro-subject areas into which outputs are assigned. Research articles are assigned to subjects based on the scientific discipline of the journal in which they are published, with the exception of multidisciplinary journals – Nature, Nature Communications, PNAS, Science and Science Advances. For these journals, subjects are assigned at the article level. Research articles can be assigned to more than one subject.

Umbrella organisation

Large, non-university organisations (typically academies, societies, associations and government agencies) that administer multiple, independent institutes within a hierarchy. Members of umbrella organisations are included within the Nature Index both individually and as part of the umbrella organisation.