Reviews & Analysis

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  • Machine learning is increasingly popular in materials science research. This Review generalizes learnings from applied machine learning in robotics and gameplaying and extends it to materials science. In particular, hybrid approaches combining model-based and data-driven models are seeding the transition from the application of machine learning to discrete tools and workflows towards emergent knowledge.

    • Kedar Hippalgaonkar
    • Qianxiao Li
    • Tonio Buonassisi
    Review Article
  • Clamping devices have been implemented in organ-on-a-chip systems to facilitate on-chip culture of complex biological models, the performance of various readouts and the selection of proper materials. In this Review, we highlight the current status of clamping technology, its benefits and future devices that promise a major impact in the organ-on-a-chip field.

    • Daniel J. Teixeira Carvalho
    • Lorenzo Moroni
    • Stefan Giselbrecht
    Review Article
  • Halide perovskite light-emitting diodes display excellent optoelectronic properties and are easy to fabricate. This Perspective article discusses the potential of perovskite emitters for the miniaturization of perovskite light-emitting diodes and provides a technical roadmap for the fabrication of microscale emitting devices.

    • Xiaoyu Yang
    • Li Ma
    • Rui Zhu
  • This work provides an overview of stability in perovskite–Si tandem solar cells, elucidates key tandem-specific degradation mechanisms, considers economic factors for perovskite–Si tandem solar cells and outlines future research directions to achieve the long-term stability necessary for the commercialization of this promising technology.

    • Leiping Duan
    • Daniel Walter
    • Heping Shen
    Review Article
  • DNA origami nanostructures are useful constructs for biophysical and therapeutic studies. This Review discusses how these nanostructures are functionalized with bioactive conjugates, purified and characterized, and compares the advantages and limitations of these methods in the context of different applications.

    • Grant A. Knappe
    • Eike-Christian Wamhoff
    • Mark Bathe
    Review Article
  • Organic solar cells that are semitransparent in the visible and strongly absorbing in the near-infrared spectral regions present unique opportunities for applications in buildings and agriculture. This Review surveys recent progress in semitransparent organic photovoltaic devices and discusses strategies to optimize their efficiency, visible transparency, lifetime and scalability.

    • Yongxi Li
    • Xinjing Huang
    • Stephen R. Forrest
    Review Article
  • Investigating single-molecule reactions will deepen our understanding of chemical reactions and establish new frameworks in materials science. This Review summarizes the chemical reactions occurring in single-molecule junctions, discusses how they differ from reactions in the bulk, and explores the possibility of leveraging single-molecule catalysis for large-scale synthesis.

    • Hongliang Chen
    • Chuancheng Jia
    • J. Fraser Stoddart
    Review Article
  • The emergence of new materials and cell designs is enabling the transition of aqueous batteries into competitive candidates for reliable and affordable energy storage. This Review critically examines the scientific advances that have enabled such a transition and explores future research prospects.

    • Yanliang Liang
    • Yan Yao
    Review Article
  • Materials for extreme environments can help to protect people, structures and the planet. Extreme temperatures in aeroplane engines, hypervelocity micrometeoroid impacts on satellites, high-speed machining of ceramics and strong radiation doses in nuclear reactors are just some examples of extreme conditions that materials need to withstand. In this Viewpoint, experts working on materials for different types of extreme environments discuss the most exciting advances, opportunities and bottlenecks in their fields.

    • Suhas Eswarappa Prameela
    • Tresa M. Pollock
    • Lori Graham-Brady
  • In perovskite solar cells, metal-oxide/perovskite interfaces suffer from a combination of issues related to interfacial defects, charge transfer, chemical stability and delamination, limiting performance. This Review discusses how molecular engineering of metal-oxide/perovskite interfaces with self-assembled monolayers can provide a solution and help to bring perovskite solar cells to market.

    • Furkan H. Isikgor
    • Shynggys Zhumagali
    • Stefaan De Wolf
    Review Article
  • Mechanical force modulates the conformation and function of individual proteins, and this underpins many mechanically driven cellular processes. This Review addresses single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments conducted on proteins with a known role in mechanosensing and mechanotransduction in eukaryotic cells.

    • Amy E. M. Beedle
    • Sergi Garcia-Manyes
    Review Article
  • One of the most advanced and challenging topics in modern reticular chemistry is structure multivariation. This Perspective defines the fundamentals of multivariation by considering sequences of chemical species as its true essence, thereby addressing the classification of multivariate structures and presenting new concepts for their analysis and application.

    • Stefano Canossa
    • Zhe Ji
    • Omar M. Yaghi
  • Machine learning is poised to accelerate the development of technologies for a renewable energy future. This Perspective highlights recent advances and in particular proposes Acc(X)eleration Performance Indicators (XPIs) to measure the effectiveness of platforms developed for accelerated energy materials discovery.

    • Zhenpeng Yao
    • Yanwei Lum
    • Zhi Wei Seh
  • van der Waals ferroelectrics are different from conventional oxide or polymer-based ferroelectrics in terms of both crystal structure and functionality. This Review discusses the experimentally verified van der Waals ferroelectrics, their unique characteristics and their potential applications in post-Moore’s law electronics.

    • Dawei Zhang
    • Peggy Schoenherr
    • Jan Seidel
    Review Article
  • Hydrogels are one of the most promising materials to bridge the stark disparities between traditional machines and biological tissues for successful interfacing between humans and machines. This Review discusses the functional modes, design principles, and current and future applications of hydrogel interfaces for the merging of humans and machines.

    • Hyunwoo Yuk
    • Jingjing Wu
    • Xuanhe Zhao
    Review Article
  • Redox-active organic materials are a promising electrode material for next-generation batteries, owing to their potential cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness. This Review compares the performance of redox-active organic materials from a practical viewpoint and discusses their potential in various post-lithium-ion-battery platforms.

    • Jihyeon Kim
    • Youngsu Kim
    • Kisuk Kang
    Review Article
  • The surface mucosa that lines many of our organs hosts a diverse set of biometric signals. This Review compares present skin-interfacing and mucosa-interfacing electronics to inspire hardware solutions for developing devices for personalized biosensing from the mucosa.

    • Kewang Nan
    • Vivian R. Feig
    • Giovanni Traverso
    Review Article
  • Introduction of guest species into archetype materials lays out a foundational pathway for creating new materials classes with desired functionalities. This Review discusses two main strategies of such applied to 2D layered materials: gating, where the guest species rest on the surface, and intercalation, where the guest species are incorporated into the host lattice.

    • Yecun Wu
    • Danfeng Li
    • Yi Cui
    Review Article
  • Data-driven approaches based on high-throughput capabilities and machine learning hold promise in revolutionizing human-centred materials discovery for sustainability and decarbonization. This Review examines the strengths and limitations of different traditional and emerging approaches to demonstrate their inherent connection and highlight the evolving paradigms of materials design.

    • Jiayu Peng
    • Daniel Schwalbe-Koda
    • Yang Shao-Horn
    Review Article