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  • This study reports that Listeria monocytogenes interferes with a cell death pathway involved in cell-mediated immunity to promote neuroinvasion and persistence.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    Research Highlight
  • An in vitro study shows that activated coagulation factors can promote SARS-CoV-2 infection by cleaving spike.

    • Ursula Hofer
    In Brief
  • A recent study uncovered a new family of Enterococcus pore-forming toxins that use human leukocyte antigen class I or major histocompatibility complex class I as receptors.

    • Ashley York
    Research Highlight
  • In this Review, Wang and colleagues review the strategies microbial pathogens use to evade plant immunity for successful infection. They highlight how microbial effectors manipulate host cellular processes involved in immune sensing, signal integration and defence execution and how to exploit this knowledge to engineer crop resistance.

    • Yan Wang
    • Rory N. Pruitt
    • Yuanchao Wang
    Review Article
  • Chemotaxis is one of the best studied bacterial behaviours, but the underlying mechanisms are much better understood than the reasons and consequences of chemotaxis. In this Review, Keegstra et al. discuss the costs and benefits both for individual bacteria and whole populations.

    • Johannes M. Keegstra
    • Francesco Carrara
    • Roman Stocker
    Review Article
  • The comparatively milder infections with the Omicron variant and higher levels of population immunity have raised hopes for a weakening of the pandemic. We argue that the lower severity of Omicron is a coincidence and that ongoing rapid antigenic evolution is likely to produce new variants that may escape immunity and be more severe.

    • Peter V. Markov
    • Aris Katzourakis
    • Nikolaos I. Stilianakis
    Comment
  • Combining several antibiotics, either in mixtures or sequential order, is proposed to increase treatment efficacy and reduce resistance evolution. In this Review, Andersson and colleagues discuss the effects of antibiotic combinations, the directional effects of previous antibiotic treatments and the role of stress-response systems as well as the interactions between drugs and resistance mutations.

    • Roderich Roemhild
    • Tobias Bollenbach
    • Dan I. Andersson
    Review Article
  • A large survey in Chinese game animals identifies a multitude of potentially pathogenic viruses and evidence for spillover events.

    • Ursula Hofer
    In Brief
  • This study shows that staphylococcal superantigen induces macrophage dysfunction through interferon-γ, thus contributing to bacterial pathogenesis.

    • Ursula Hofer
    In Brief
  • The results of this study suggest that phages of the gut modulate cognitive function.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    In Brief
  • This study set out to resolve the differences in the inferred Archaea–Bacteria branch length.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    In Brief
  • This study presents the results of a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) challenge trial with EDP-938, a nonfusion replication inhibitor of RSV, showing effective lowering of viral load and symptoms, without apparent safety concerns.

    • Andrea Du Toit
    In Brief
  • Soil microorganisms shape global element cycles in life and death. In this Review, Sokol and colleagues explore how the biogeochemical cycling of organic matter depends on both living and dead soil microorganisms, their functional traits, and their interactions with the soil matrix and other organisms. They also discuss incorporating microbial life and death into trait-based models that predict soil biogeochemical dynamics.

    • Noah W. Sokol
    • Eric Slessarev
    • Jennifer Pett-Ridge
    Review Article
  • To maintain genome integrity and ensure cell survival, bacteria have evolved several DNA repair pathways to repair different types of DNA damage and non-canonical bases, including strand breaks, nucleotide modifications, cross-links, mismatches and ribonucleotide incorporations. In this Review, Wozniak and Simmons provide a contemporary discussion of the excision-based mechanisms bacteria use to repair the diverse set of lesions they encounter.

    • Katherine J. Wozniak
    • Lyle A. Simmons
    Review Article
  • The magnitude of immune evasion of Omicron raises the question whether it should be considered as a distinct SARS-CoV-2 serotype. Here, we discuss lines of evidence in support or against the concept of SARS-CoV-2 serotypes, and the implications of this classification.

    • Etienne Simon-Loriere
    • Olivier Schwartz
    Comment