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  • A new study involving integrative genomic and transcriptomic analysis of dual hepatocellular–intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tumours has identified distinct subtypes that display different clinical and molecular features, and that could be used to guide therapeutic decisions.

    • Patricia Munoz-Garrido
    • Pedro M. Rodrigues
    News & Views
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to change many aspects of health-care practice. Two newly published trials explore the potential applications of AI to improve polyp detection and mucosal visualization in gastrointestinal endoscopy — both show the benefits of AI to improve detection in gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    • Colin J. Rees
    • Sara Koo
    News & Views
  • Telephone or web-based psychotherapy has been suggested to be as effective as face-to-face psychotherapy while lowering access restrictions and improving patient acceptability. A large new study in patients with IBS shows the superiority of such an approach in comparison with treatment as usual.

    • Paul Enck
    • Jeffrey M. Lackner
    News & Views
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been linked to common gastrointestinal symptoms; yet its precise definition remains elusive. A new study shows that, when it comes to symptom prediction in functional gastrointestinal disorders, high-throughput sequencing analysis of the microbiome and not jejunal aspiration and culture is the clear winner.

    • Eamonn M. M. Quigley
    News & Views
  • Single-cell RNA profiling of colonic epithelial crypts from healthy volunteers and patients with ulcerative colitis adds pH-regulating colonocytes and goblet cells expressing a major determinant of barrier maintenance to the current arsenal of uncovered colonic epithelial cell types.

    • Isabelle Cleynen
    • Debby Laukens
    News & Views
  • A new study shows that a real-world care pathway for patients with NAFLD in primary care can increase the detection of patients with clinically significant liver disease and decrease referrals for patients who could be managed in the community.

    • Patricia C. Valery
    • Elizabeth E. Powell
    News & Views
  • A new study provides evidence that platelets exert potent inflammatory effects and play a central part in the progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The results from this and other studies raise important questions regarding the role of platelets in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals with fatty liver disease.

    • Laurence P. Diggs
    • Tim F. Greten
    News & Views
  • A new study provides mechanistic insight into the carcinogenic potential of human colonic mucosal microbial biofilms, confirming that both microbiota composition and organization along with the host inflammatory response are contributing factors to creating the ‘perfect storm’ in terms of colorectal carcinogenesis.

    • Georgina L. Hold
    • Emma Allen-Vercoe
    News & Views
  • In a new study, the risk of new mental illness postpartum was significantly increased in women with IBD, and specifically in those with Crohn’s disease. Disturbingly, the risk of a substance disorder was also elevated in these women. The findings highlight that disease management during pregnancy is challenging and requires a multidisciplinary approach.

    • C. Janneke van der Woude
    • Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit
    News & Views
  • A new study shows that a sustainable faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) treatment protocol, including anaerobic sample preparation, induces remission of active ulcerative colitis. The promising results are another piece in the puzzle, but it is not yet possible to draw conclusions and implement the procedure in clinical practice.

    • Giovanni Cammarota
    • Gianluca Ianiro
    News & Views
  • A new study provides evidence that colonization of germ-free mice with faecal bacteria from healthy infants can protect against signs of cow’s milk allergy in mice. The results from this and other studies raise the intriguing question of whether the gut microbiota can be manipulated for food allergy prevention and therapy.

    • Supinda Bunyavanich
    News & Views
  • Two recent papers show that probiotics colonize the gut in permissive volunteers only and delay the reconstitution of the microbiome after antibiotics treatment. In the absence of any clinical readouts, it is still difficult to extrapolate these observations in terms of short-term or long-term health consequences for patients.

    • Philippe Langella
    • Jean-Marc Chatel
    News & Views
  • A new study of a fibroblast growth factor 19 analogue in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) provides provocative results. The data challenge alkaline phosphatase levels as the appropriate surrogate end point in PSC trials and highlight alternatives, urging efforts to identify better clinical end points for this disease.

    • Alessio Gerussi
    • Pietro Invernizzi
    News & Views
  • Over the past decade, many studies have revealed the importance of the gut microbiome in disease development and treatment, including in cancer. Because both host genetics and the gut microbiome can influence host phenotype and treatment outcome, there is an urgent need to develop precision medicine and personalize dietary supplementation based on an individual’s microbiome.

    • Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan
    • Prasant Kumar Jena
    News & Views
  • Innovative solutions are needed to overcome the global disparity in patients awaiting kidney transplantation versus donor organs available. A new study reports a promising new strategy of transplanting kidneys from HCV-infected donors into HCV-uninfected recipients and treating their HCV with direct-acting antivirals post-transplant — recipients achieved HCV cure with excellent one-year kidney allograft function.

    • Allison J. Kwong
    • Norah A. Terrault
    News & Views
  • New findings show that a gut microbiome signature derived from metagenomic and phenomic data can accurately predict nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese women. The data highlight a role for phenylacetic acid, a microbial product of aromatic amino acid metabolism, in the cross-talk between the gut microbiome and the host hepatic phenotype.

    • Cyrielle Caussy
    • Rohit Loomba
    News & Views
  • Pancreatic cancer is a disease with high tumour heterogeneity and dismal prognosis. There are few therapeutic options and many promising drugs have failed in patients, which makes better models to predict drug efficacy a key research priority. Now, a new study shows that patient-derived organoids can be used for molecular and therapeutic profiling and might be useful to predict clinical responses.

    • Thomas Seufferlein
    • Alexander Kleger
    News & Views
  • A new report in Science by Ma and colleagues uncovers the interplay of microbiota-controlled bile acid metabolism and immune responses in the context of primary and metastatic liver tumours in mice. Their findings shed light on the gut–liver axis in hepatic malignancies.

    • Timon E. Adolph
    • Herbert Tilg
    News & Views
  • IBD is associated with disruptions to resident microbial populations and inflammatory immune responses; however, little is known about how bacteria influence pathogenic immunity. New research identifies microbially produced ascorbate as a potential drug target to ameliorate disease by inhibiting inflammatory T cell function through altered cellular metabolism.

    • João Carlos Gomes-Neto
    • June L. Round
    News & Views
  • New findings show that disease-specific T cells that target gluten in patients with coeliac disease persist for decades. The data highlight a central role for a highly select and stable population of T cells in disease persistence and support the feasibility of diagnostics and therapies targeting these cells.

    • Melinda Y. Hardy
    • Jason A. Tye-Din
    News & Views