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A great-ape view of the gut microbiome

Latest Reviews

  • Perspective |

    Using the example of carbon concentrating mechanisms in plants, the authors of this Perspective provide evidence that broad comparative genomic analyses likely overestimate the genetic complexity underlying convergent evolution of complex traits.

    • Karolina Heyduk
    • , Jose J. Moreno-Villena
    • , Ian S. Gilman
    • , Pascal-Antoine Christin
    •  & Erika J. Edwards
  • Review Article |

    Eukaryotes differ substantially from bacteria and archaea owing to their nucleosome-based packaging of DNA. In this Review, Talbert, Meers and Henikoff place gene regulation in an evolutionary context by discussing how the emergence and diversification of eukaryotic chromatin provided both challenges and opportunities for intricate mechanisms of gene regulation in eukaryotes.

    • Paul B. Talbert
    • , Michael P. Meers
    •  & Steven Henikoff
  • Review Article |

    Next-generation sequencing has improved the identification and characterization of antimicrobial resistance. Focusing on sequence-based discovery of antibiotic resistance genes, this Review discusses computational strategies and resources for resistance gene identification in genomic and metagenomic samples, including recent deep-learning approaches.

    • Manish Boolchandani
    • , Alaric W. D’Souza
    •  & Gautam Dantas
  • Review Article |

    Transposable elements (TEs) need to be tightly regulated in genomes to prevent the detrimental consequences of transposition. In this Review, Deniz, Frost and Branco discuss how DNA methylation dynamics play a central role in the multilayered epigenetic mechanisms regulating TEs. Beyond roles for 5-methylcytosine (5mC), they discuss TET-mediated oxidation products of 5mC, as well as ongoing debates about the functional relevance of adenine methylation.

    • Özgen Deniz
    • , Jennifer M. Frost
    •  & Miguel R. Branco
  • Perspective |

    In this Timeline article, Shay and Wright provide a historical account of progress in our understanding of telomeres (the ends of linear chromosomes) and telomerase (the primary enzyme that maintains and extends telomere lengths). Their perspective covers seminal moments from the early discoveries through to our latest understanding of the roles of telomeres and telomerase in ageing, diverse human diseases and gene regulation.

    • Jerry W. Shay
    •  & Woodring E. Wright
  • Review Article |

    Enthusiasm for patient-specific therapies based on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has risen in parallel with rapid advances in genome editing. This Review summarizes the progress in iPSC-based disease modelling over the past decade, with a focus on 3D organoid systems and chimeric models being exploited for new therapeutic approaches.

    • R. Grant Rowe
    •  & George Q. Daley

News & Comment

  • Research Highlight |

    Two studies report substantial temporal and spatial variability in mutagenic signatures caused by APOBEC cytidine deaminases in cancer.

    • Darren J. Burgess
  • Research Highlight |

    A study in Nature reveals that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of RNA occurs co-transcriptionally and is mediated by interactions between histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) and the m6A methyltransferase complex.

    • Dorothy Clyde
  • Research Highlight |

    Nair et al. contrast events at specific super-enhancers after acute and chronic ligand-induced activation and show that biomolecular condensates at these enhancers undergo physical changes over time that affect chromatin conformation and gene expression.

    • Linda Koch
  • Comment |

    A genomics-informed response to infectious disease has great potential to improve individual patient treatment as well as public health. This Comment discusses the ethical, legal and social challenges that will need to be overcome if clinical pathogen genomics is to be implemented successfully.

    • Stephanie B. Johnson
    •  & Michael Parker
  • Comment |

    Variants of unknown significance (VUS) are genetic variants whose association with disease risk is unknown. The authors posit that VUS should not inform clinical decision-making as the benefits of returning this genetic information to patients undergoing genetic testing are outweighed by the potential for harm.

    • Samantha Pollard
    • , Sophie Sun
    •  & Dean A. Regier
  • Research Highlight |

    Two studies in Science show that cytosine base editors, but not adenine base editors or CRISPR–Cas9, induce notable off-target single-nucleotide variants in rice and in mouse embryos.

    • Katharine H. Wrighton

Collection

Overcoming challenges in rare genetic diseases

Artvile/Getty images

Overcoming challenges in rare genetic diseases

Rare genetic diseases affect more than 300 million people worldwide, so collectively are a major health burden.

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