2021 tables: Institutions - life sciences

The 2021 tables are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020.

Table criteria

# Institution Share 2019 Share 2020 Count 2020 Change in Adjusted Share 2019-2020*
1 Harvard University, United States of America (USA) 653.89 680.77 1,865 -3.7%
2 National Institutes of Health (NIH), United States of America (USA) 356.11 372.76 1,010 -3.2%
3 Stanford University, United States of America (USA) 309.51 326.24 835 -2.5%
4 Max Planck Society, Germany 291.73 310.32 1,168 -1.6%
5 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China 244.78 275.72 969 4.2%
6 University of Oxford, United Kingdom (UK) 211.94 219.88 749 -4.1%
7 University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), United States of America (USA) 203.46 217.63 654 -1.1%
8 Yale University, United States of America (USA) 199.23 215.29 537 -0.1%
9 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), United States of America (USA) 203.28 200.45 912 -8.8%
10 Johns Hopkins University (JHU), United States of America (USA) 172.82 198.53 537 6.2%
11 University of Michigan (U-M), United States of America (USA) 151.31 195.49 476 19.5%
12 University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego), United States of America (USA) 182.26 194.38 562 -1.4%
13 University of Pennsylvania (Penn), United States of America (USA) 179.89 190.07 578 -2.3%
14 University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK) 168.84 186.28 688 2.0%
15 French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), France 182.89 181.39 1,419 -8.3%
16 Columbia University in the City of New York (CU), United States of America (USA) 150.29 172.73 542 6.3%
17 Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL), United States of America (USA) 155.34 169.15 483 0.7%
18 University of Toronto (U of T), Canada 156.86 162.57 466 -4.2%
19 Cornell University, United States of America (USA) 155.55 158.67 540 -5.7%
20 Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Germany 102.27 147.39 884 33.3%
21 Duke University, United States of America (USA) 139.66 142.42 442 -5.7%
22 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United States of America (USA) 149.55 139.38 505 -13.8%
23 New York University (NYU), United States of America (USA) 127.89 138.59 406 0.2%
24 The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UT Southwestern Medical Center), United States of America (USA) 130.79 137.61 294 -2.7%
25 University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), United States of America (USA) 146.27 137.06 396 -13.3%
26 University of Washington (UW), United States of America (USA) 151.90 134.02 485 -18.4%
27 UCL, United Kingdom (UK) 126.00 126.28 497 -7.3%
28 Northwestern University (NU), United States of America (USA) 101.82 117.84 294 7.0%
29 The University of Chicago (UChicago), United States of America (USA) 106.30 105.66 292 -8.1%
30 University of California, Davis (UC Davis), United States of America (USA) 74.63 102.27 292 26.7%
31 University of Pittsburgh (Pitt), United States of America (USA) 85.62 102.16 296 10.3%
32 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), United States of America (USA) 96.36 100.41 355 -3.6%
33 The University of Tokyo (UTokyo), Japan 73.58 97.51 331 22.6%
34 Vanderbilt University (VU), United States of America (USA) 82.13 96.91 267 9.1%
35 University of Zurich (UZH), Switzerland 80.54 94.40 377 8.4%
36 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), United States of America (USA) 100.40 93.85 336 -13.6%
37 Peking University (PKU), China 97.80 93.13 305 -11.9%
38 Princeton University, United States of America (USA) 86.29 90.71 221 -2.8%
39 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich), Switzerland 87.95 89.12 295 -6.3%
40 Imperial College London (ICL), United Kingdom (UK) 69.58 88.49 380 17.6%
41 Karolinska Institute (KI), Sweden 74.92 88.44 381 9.2%
42 McGill University, Canada 86.61 86.31 292 -7.8%
43 Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), United States of America (USA) 78.70 84.70 344 -0.5%
44 University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison), United States of America (USA) 97.56 83.87 217 -20.5%
45 The Rockefeller University, United States of America (USA) 89.13 80.91 233 -16.1%
46 University of Minnesota (UMN), United States of America (USA) 82.57 80.35 250 -10.0%
47 National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), France 79.76 80.02 868 -7.2%
48 Mount Sinai Health System (MSHS), United States of America (USA) 59.39 79.43 367 23.7%
49 University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark 76.40 78.95 352 -4.4%
50 The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom (UK) 80.23 78.86 328 -9.1%
51 Emory University, United States of America (USA) 63.36 77.04 264 12.4%
52 Zhejiang University (ZJU), China 69.39 76.77 226 2.3%
53 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, United States of America (USA) 71.34 74.64 320 -3.2%
54 The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin), United States of America (USA) 55.61 74.52 175 23.9%
55 Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS), Israel 59.02 71.88 167 12.6%
56 Tsinghua University, China 71.90 70.88 264 -8.8%
57 The University of Queensland (UQ), Australia 41.37 70.17 287 56.9%
58 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), China 60.16 69.70 477 7.2%
59 Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (LMU), Germany 73.11 69.01 312 -12.7%
60 Heidelberg University (Uni Heidelberg), Germany 47.28 68.11 327 33.2%
61 Scripps Research, United States of America (USA) 73.81 65.66 179 -17.7%
62 University of California, Irvine (UCI), United States of America (USA) 43.22 65.36 178 39.8%
63 The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), United States of America (USA) 55.62 64.72 178 7.6%
64 Fudan University, China 58.20 64.38 232 2.3%
65 California Institute of Technology (Caltech), United States of America (USA) 59.20 63.62 163 -0.6%
66 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey (RU), United States of America (USA) 67.26 63.19 181 -13.1%
67 National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 57.36 60.81 265 -1.9%
68 Kyoto University, Japan 47.16 60.32 198 18.3%
69 University of Southern California (USC), United States of America (USA) 72.92 60.12 242 -23.8%
70 Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), China 56.27 59.57 221 -2.1%
71 Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), China 50.68 58.91 186 7.5%
72 The Francis Crick Institute, United Kingdom (UK) 48.51 57.50 172 9.6%
73 Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HUJI), Israel 48.48 56.64 147 8.0%
74 Mayo Clinic, United States of America (USA) 36.91 56.56 185 41.7%
75 UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), United Kingdom (UK) 57.68 56.50 309 -9.4%
76 Leibniz Association, Germany 54.29 56.09 405 -4.5%
77 The Ohio State University (OSU), United States of America (USA) 47.90 55.67 186 7.5%
78 University of Lausanne (UNIL), Switzerland 51.79 55.08 194 -1.6%
79 RIKEN, Japan 39.37 54.86 251 28.9%
80 The University of Utah (Utah), United States of America (USA) 58.05 54.74 171 -12.8%
81 Indiana University (IU), United States of America (USA) 48.51 54.26 188 3.4%
82 Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain 62.19 54.17 350 -19.4%
83 Boston University (BU), United States of America (USA) 48.54 53.86 256 2.6%
84 University of Virginia (UVA), United States of America (USA) 42.65 53.56 144 16.1%
85 The University of British Columbia (UBC), Canada 69.64 53.44 219 -29.0%
86 The University of Melbourne (UniMelb), Australia 43.99 52.68 340 10.8%
87 Utrecht University (UU), Netherlands 44.94 52.18 252 7.4%
88 University of Bristol (UoB), United Kingdom (UK) 41.07 52.17 172 17.5%
89 University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMass Medical School), United States of America (USA) 60.58 50.83 189 -22.4%
90 University of Florida (UF), United States of America (USA) 55.45 50.46 168 -15.9%
91 European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Germany 43.62 49.73 322 5.4%
92 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland 50.67 49.39 153 -9.8%
93 King's College London (KCL), United Kingdom (UK) 42.44 48.09 240 4.8%
94 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), United States of America (USA) 53.63 47.99 136 -17.3%
95 University of Cincinnati (UC), United States of America (USA) 47.36 46.98 127 -8.3%
96 Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany 32.16 46.87 246 34.8%
97 Seoul National University (SNU), South Korea 39.67 46.41 160 8.2%
98 University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland 44.75 46.22 148 -4.5%
99 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC), United States of America (USA) 41.22 46.02 220 3.3%
100 Pasteur Institute, France 32.78 45.76 258 29.1%

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 82 natural-science journals, selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at nature.com/nature-index/.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen annual tables.

*The change in adjusted Share accounts for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. Share values have been adjusted to 2021 levels to calculate the percentage change. For more information on the adjustment, please see the Adjusted metric explainer.