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Senescence is a state of permanent cell cycle arrest. This Review highlights the chemical characteristics of senescence and how we can use small molecules to target, detect or eliminate senescent cells, as well as to induce or inhibit senescence.
Natural product biosynthetic pathways are rich in novel enzymology, but identifying the enzymes that perform new transformations remains challenging. This Review describes recently characterized examples of remarkable chemistries catalysed by biosynthetic enzymes and explores the extent of enzymatic novelty that awaits discovery.
Light emitting, molecularly tunable organic colour-centers are sp3 quantum defects that create localized two-level systems within the host crystals, providing unique tools to harness electrons, excitons, phonons and spin for novel functionality.
All organisms have developed vital sensory processes that enable prompt reactions in response to external environmental changes. Su and co-workers propose a bioinspired thermoresponsive device made of solid-state nanochannels that induce thermally selective ion transport.
FoF1-ATPase is a vital molecular machine in organisms responsible for the catalytic synthesis of the basic energy unit ATP. In this Review, the development of FoF1-ATPase reconstitution into artificial architectures is discussed ultimately leading to the development of stimuli-responsive ATP synthesis.
Thermal denaturation of proteins affords species that differ in terms of cofactors and conformations. Ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry can be used to unravel these mixtures and learn the factors stabilizing certain protein forms.
The development of C–H functionalization methodology offers a new logic for chemical synthesis. Dirhodium tetracarboxylates have emerged as some of the most effective catalysts for these transformations, enabling site-selective and stereoselective insertion of transient metal carbenes into C–H bonds.
A rapid synthesis of the antibacterial drug linezolid using flow chemistry has been reported that does not require isolation or purification of any intermediates and is completed in seven synthetic steps
Water oxidation catalysts are key components in water-splitting devices that synthesize fuels by using energy, including that from sunlight. This Perspective presents historical developments in molecular water oxidation catalysis, emphasizing studies of ruthenium complexes that have taught us how to design optimal catalysts.
3D printing technology emerged as a tool for the design and fabrication of prototypes. Chemists are now using this technology to produce chemically reactive materials. In this Review, Hartings and Ahmed discuss different approaches to 3D print chemically reactive objects.
The selective conjugation of two or more molecules is readily achieved using covalent click chemistry or non-covalent click chemistry. The latter approach makes use of complementary molecular recognition partners, and its speed and reversibility are advantageous for many biological applications.
Analysis of complex mixtures often requires time consuming separation techniques. Mathias Nilsson and co-workers have, now, developed a new approach to dissecting the NMR spectra of unaltered complex mixtures.
This Review highlights recent conceptual and/or technological advances in photoredox catalysis, organic electrosynthesis, electrostatic chemistry and synthesis in static electric fields, mechanochemistry and synthesis in flow.
Modelling composite systems with components on different length scales is challenging. However, multiscale models based on quantum and classical descriptions can describe these systems and represent the most effective way to explain and predict light-activated events in such complex systems.
Chiral molecules can filter electrons according to their spin. This chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect can have important applications, such as in spintronics and in enantioseparation. This Review describes the CISS effect, its mechanism and its fascinating applications.
Selective binding of multiple guests within cages could lead to new applications in catalysis and sensing. This Review discusses the design of synthetic cages with the aim of developing and controlling guest–guest chemistry.
Ethanol has emerged as a potential alternative feedstock for the synthesis of middle-distillate transportation fuels. This Review describes the chemistry of ethanol-to-distillate processes and challenges associated with improving current technologies and implementing new ones.
A quasi-liquid layer on the surface of ice makes it slippery even below the bulk melting temperature. The nature of this premelted layer has long been debated, and this Review gathers experimental and theoretical data and discusses opinions and evidence on premelting at ice surfaces.
Over the past 5 years, many novel site-selective protein modification techniques have been reported. Key features of these various strategies as well as prominent examples are discussed in this Review.
Bacteria sense metal ions using proteins whose interactions with DNA are sensitive to metal ion availability and identity. Less competitive metal ions trigger protein–DNA binding only at high concentrations.
The high lithium-ion conductivity and deformability of solid sulfide electrolytes make them key materials in all-solid-state lithium batteries. Liquid-phase reactions are valid and scalable approaches for the preparation of sulfide-based solid electrolytes that overcome the issues of moisture sensitivity and high vapour pressures of sulfur species.
When presented with a light stimulus, heteroaryl azo photoswitches undergo molecular motion that can be harnessed for applications in materials science, catalyst design or drug development, among other fields. This Review describes selected subclasses of these versatile chemical motifs, covering their properties and prominent applications.
SO2 and NO2 are primary causes of air pollution and severe breathing problems worldwide. This Review gives an overview of the recent advances in the use of metal–organic framework materials to capture and remove these toxic gases from air.
Structurally complex natural products can be efficiently accessed through protecting-group-free (PGF) synthesis. This Review describes recent examples of PGF syntheses of terpenes and alkaloids, showcasing the power and elegance of innovative methods and strategies in natural product synthesis.
Super-resolution microscopy (SRM) has already proved to be a powerful lens for investigating biosystems. In this Review, the authors show how SRM can be very powerful in the study of synthetic material both in situ and in operando.
Discovery of new materials has been traditionally based on a trial-and-error approach. Now, miniaturized nanoreactors have been developed for the synthesis and analysis of nanoparticle megalibraries of different size and composition.
Automation can help in performing routine tasks quickly and consistently. Algorithms facilitate the searching of current knowledge. Combining the two could lead to a chemically intelligent approach to the discovery of not only new molecules but also novel and unpredictable reactivity.
This Perspective introduces energy decomposition analysis as a means of providing a quantum chemically derived bonding model that we can use to rationalize molecular geometries and bonding. The model serves as a bridge between the simple Lewis electron-pair bond and the complicated quantum theoretical nature of the chemical bond.
Lewis’ shared electron-pair model was a stroke of genius, describing the structure and reactivity of molecules purely on the basis of his tremendous knowledge of empirical chemistry without any quantum chemistry. Unprecedented in simplicity, its success unfortunately concealed some misleading interpretations of the physical origin of chemical bonding.
39Ar is an ideal tracer for radioactive dating in the 50–1000 year range of deep ocean circulations. However, extremely low concentrations of 39Ar in the ocean make the dating process long and costly. Applied quantum technologies can, however, drastically simplify ocean dating procedures.
Ion mobility–mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is a gas-phase method for structural characterization — a tool prevalent in biology but only recently finding applications in supramolecular chemistry. This Perspective describes how IM-MS techniques give us information about the structures of molecular self-assemblies, host–guest complexes and metallosupramolecular systems.
Low-valent early transition metals are experiencing a renaissance in synthesis and catalysis, finding applications in unusual C–C bond forming reactions, oxidative group-transfer catalysis, proton-coupled electron transfer, photoredox catalysis and more.