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  • Article |

    Males of the malaria vector species Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae produce and release aggregation pheromones that attract individuals to the swarm, enhancing mating success. The authors argue that manipulating such pheromones could increase the efficacy of malaria-vector control programmes.

    • Raimondas Mozūraitis
    • , Melika Hajkazemian
    • , Jacek W. Zawada
    • , Joanna Szymczak
    • , Katinka Pålsson
    • , Vaishnovi Sekar
    • , Inna Biryukova
    • , Marc R. Friedländer
    • , Lizette L. Koekemoer
    • , J. Kevin Baird
    • , Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson
    •  & S. Noushin Emami
  • Article |

    Combining global eddy covariance observations and photosynthesis estimates from terrestrial biosphere models, the authors demonstrate widespread acclimation of photosynthesis to light in natural environments, with croplands showing stronger acclimation rates than forests or grasslands.

    • Xiangzhong Luo
    •  & Trevor F. Keenan
  • Article |

    Analysing archaic and modern human genomes, the authors show that Neanderthal introgression reintroduced thousands of lost ancestral variants with gene regulatory activity and that these reintroduced alleles are more tolerated by modern humans than introgressed Neanderthal-derived alleles.

    • David C. Rinker
    • , Corinne N. Simonti
    • , Evonne McArthur
    • , Douglas Shaw
    • , Emily Hodges
    •  & John A. Capra
  • Article |

    Screening >100 bee and >80 flower species for five common microparasites over 26 weeks, the authors show that parasite prevalence increases in bees toward the end of the growing season, but decreases on plants, and is related to bee diversity, abundance and community composition.

    • Peter Graystock
    • , Wee Hao Ng
    • , Kyle Parks
    • , Amber D. Tripodi
    • , Paige A. Muñiz
    • , Ashley A. Fersch
    • , Christopher R. Myers
    • , Quinn S. McFrederick
    •  & Scott H. McArt
  • Article |

    Comparing Mexican cavefish from rivers with those from caves, the authors show increased sensitivity of the innate and adaptive immune system that is accompanied by a reduced investment in the innate immune system as an evolutionary response to lower parasite diversity.

    • Robert Peuß
    • , Andrew C. Box
    • , Shiyuan Chen
    • , Yongfu Wang
    • , Dai Tsuchiya
    • , Jenna L. Persons
    • , Alexander Kenzior
    • , Ernesto Maldonado
    • , Jaya Krishnan
    • , Jörn P. Scharsack
    • , Brian D. Slaughter
    •  & Nicolas Rohner
  • Article |

    An analysis across multiple species groups and different facets of stand-level heterogeneity in temperate forests from Central Europe reveals that heterogeneity–diversity relationships are not generalizable and predictable as modelling approaches suggest, varying even between ecologically similar species groups.

    • Lea Heidrich
    • , Soyeon Bae
    • , Shaun Levick
    • , Sebastian Seibold
    • , Wolfgang Weisser
    • , Peter Krzystek
    • , Paul Magdon
    • , Thomas Nauss
    • , Peter Schall
    • , Alla Serebryanyk
    • , Stephan Wöllauer
    • , Christian Ammer
    • , Claus Bässler
    • , Inken Doerfler
    • , Markus Fischer
    • , Martin M. Gossner
    • , Marco Heurich
    • , Torsten Hothorn
    • , Kirsten Jung
    • , Holger Kreft
    • , Ernst-Detlef Schulze
    • , Nadja Simons
    • , Simon Thorn
    •  & Jörg Müller
  • Article |

    Manipulation of Hh and other genes involved in neural development of the chordate amphioxus reveals conservation and differences in neural patterning mechanisms between vertebrates and amphioxus.

    • Qiongqiong Ren
    • , Yanhong Zhong
    • , Xin Huang
    • , Brigid Leung
    • , Chaofan Xing
    • , Hui Wang
    • , Guangwei Hu
    • , Yiquan Wang
    • , Sebastian M. Shimeld
    •  & Guang Li
  • Article |

    Discovery cohorts from three continents, plus experiments in mouse models, are used to identify microbial species and mechanisms involved in post-antibiotic gut community recovery.

    • Kern Rei Chng
    • , Tarini Shankar Ghosh
    • , Yi Han Tan
    • , Tannistha Nandi
    • , Ivor Russel Lee
    • , Amanda Hui Qi Ng
    • , Chenhao Li
    • , Aarthi Ravikrishnan
    • , Kar Mun Lim
    • , David Lye
    • , Timothy Barkham
    • , Karthik Raman
    • , Swaine L. Chen
    • , Louis Chai
    • , Barnaby Young
    • , Yunn-Hwen Gan
    •  & Niranjan Nagarajan
  • Article |

    Unstable and harsh climates have been implicated as partial causes of Neanderthal demise. Here a speleothem palaeoenvironmental record spanning the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition attests to stable and moderate conditions in the Mediterranean during this time suggesting a more complicated picture than previously thought.

    • Andrea Columbu
    • , Veronica Chiarini
    • , Christoph Spötl
    • , Stefano Benazzi
    • , John Hellstrom
    • , Hai Cheng
    •  & Jo De Waele
  • Article |

    Analysing data on egg size and planktonic duration from >750 marine species with a larval period, the authors show that temperature, life-history and oceanographic processes interact to shape peaks of dispersal at low and high latitudes.

    • Mariana Álvarez-Noriega
    • , Scott C. Burgess
    • , James E. Byers
    • , James M. Pringle
    • , John P. Wares
    •  & Dustin J. Marshall
  • Article |

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of Homo erectus, Homo sapiens and a Neanderthal suggest a recent evolutionary origin for the comparatively shallow modern human thorax.

    • Markus Bastir
    • , Daniel García-Martínez
    • , Nicole Torres-Tamayo
    • , Carlos A. Palancar
    • , Benoît Beyer
    • , Alon Barash
    • , Chiara Villa
    • , Juan Alberto Sanchis-Gimeno
    • , Alberto Riesco-López
    • , Shahed Nalla
    • , Isabel Torres-Sánchez
    • , Francisco García-Río
    • , Ella Been
    • , Asier Gómez-Olivencia
    • , Martin Haeusler
    • , Scott A. Williams
    •  & Fred Spoor
  • Article |

    A new study of the divergence time of angiosperm families shows that although most angiosperm families originated during the middle Cretaceous (~100–90 million years ago), the diversification of families into extant diversity was delayed until the Palaeocene (~66–56 million years ago), this time lag being geographically heterogeneous, and longer in tropical than in temperate and arid biomes.

    • Santiago Ramírez-Barahona
    • , Hervé Sauquet
    •  & Susana Magallón
  • Article |

    Invasion of land required changes of vertebrate metabolism. Here, the authors report a pathway for sulfur metabolism present in chick embryos but not in mammals, which originated around 300 million years ago in a proto-reptile.

    • Marco Malatesta
    • , Giulia Mori
    • , Domenico Acquotti
    • , Barbara Campanini
    • , Alessio Peracchi
    • , Parker B. Antin
    •  & Riccardo Percudani
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Genome analysis of the pico-eukaryotic marine green alga Prasinoderma coloniale CCMP 1413 unveils the existence of a novel phylum within green plants (Viridiplantae), the Prasinodermophyta, which diverged before the split of Chlorophyta and Streptophyta.

    • Linzhou Li
    • , Sibo Wang
    • , Hongli Wang
    • , Sunil Kumar Sahu
    • , Birger Marin
    • , Haoyuan Li
    • , Yan Xu
    • , Hongping Liang
    • , Zhen Li
    • , Shifeng Cheng
    • , Tanja Reder
    • , Zehra Çebi
    • , Sebastian Wittek
    • , Morten Petersen
    • , Barbara Melkonian
    • , Hongli Du
    • , Huanming Yang
    • , Jian Wang
    • , Gane Ka-Shu Wong
    • , Xun Xu
    • , Xin Liu
    • , Yves Van de Peer
    • , Michael Melkonian
    •  & Huan Liu
  • Article |

    Genome sequencing of multiple independent invading freshwater and native saline populations of a copepod reveals a positive association between balancing selection in the native range and parallel directional selection in the invading populations.

    • David Ben Stern
    •  & Carol Eunmi Lee
  • Article |

    Developing theory to explore the effects of environmental change on the structure of species interactions within communities, the authors show that enhancing asymmetry in the structure can explain idiosyncratic responses to change. They further confirm these findings on experimental data from microbial species grown together compared with in isolation, subject to different temperature regimes.

    • Andrea Tabi
    • , Frank Pennekamp
    • , Florian Altermatt
    • , Roman Alther
    • , Emanuel A. Fronhofer
    • , Katherine Horgan
    • , Elvira Mächler
    • , Mikael Pontarp
    • , Owen L. Petchey
    •  & Serguei Saavedra
  • Article |

    An analysis of geometric morphometric data from 148 species of salamanders shows how life cycle influences cranial shape diversity and rate of evolution.

    • Anne-Claire Fabre
    • , Carla Bardua
    • , Margot Bon
    • , Julien Clavel
    • , Ryan N. Felice
    • , Jeffrey W. Streicher
    • , Jeanne Bonnel
    • , Edward L. Stanley
    • , David C. Blackburn
    •  & Anjali Goswami
  • Article |

    A cross-scale analysis of paired-stressor effects on biological variables of European freshwater ecosystems shows that in 39% of cases, significant effects were limited to single stressors, with nutrient enrichment being the most important of these in lakes. Additive and interactive effects were similarly frequent (ca. 30% each), this frequency being independent of the spatial scale of analysis for lakes but increasing with scale for rivers.

    • Sebastian Birk
    • , Daniel Chapman
    • , Laurence Carvalho
    • , Bryan M. Spears
    • , Hans Estrup Andersen
    • , Christine Argillier
    • , Stefan Auer
    • , Annette Baattrup-Pedersen
    • , Lindsay Banin
    • , Meryem Beklioğlu
    • , Elisabeth Bondar-Kunze
    • , Angel Borja
    • , Paulo Branco
    • , Tuba Bucak
    • , Anthonie D. Buijse
    • , Ana Cristina Cardoso
    • , Raoul-Marie Couture
    • , Fabien Cremona
    • , Dick de Zwart
    • , Christian K. Feld
    • , M. Teresa Ferreira
    • , Heidrun Feuchtmayr
    • , Mark O. Gessner
    • , Alexander Gieswein
    • , Lidija Globevnik
    • , Daniel Graeber
    • , Wolfram Graf
    • , Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas
    • , Jenica Hanganu
    • , Uğur Işkın
    • , Marko Järvinen
    • , Erik Jeppesen
    • , Niina Kotamäki
    • , Marijn Kuijper
    • , Jan U. Lemm
    • , Shenglan Lu
    • , Anne Lyche Solheim
    • , Ute Mischke
    • , S. Jannicke Moe
    • , Peeter Nõges
    • , Tiina Nõges
    • , Steve J. Ormerod
    • , Yiannis Panagopoulos
    • , Geoff Phillips
    • , Leo Posthuma
    • , Sarai Pouso
    • , Christel Prudhomme
    • , Katri Rankinen
    • , Jes J. Rasmussen
    • , Jessica Richardson
    • , Alban Sagouis
    • , José Maria Santos
    • , Ralf B. Schäfer
    • , Rafaela Schinegger
    • , Stefan Schmutz
    • , Susanne C. Schneider
    • , Lisa Schülting
    • , Pedro Segurado
    • , Kostas Stefanidis
    • , Bernd Sures
    • , Stephen J. Thackeray
    • , Jarno Turunen
    • , María C. Uyarra
    • , Markus Venohr
    • , Peter Carsten von der Ohe
    • , Nigel Willby
    •  & Daniel Hering
  • Article |

    Using comparative population genomics across pinnipeds, this study explores how demographic change and life-history traits are correlated to the effective size of a population and conservation status.

    • Claire R. Peart
    • , Sergio Tusso
    • , Saurabh D. Pophaly
    • , Fidel Botero-Castro
    • , Chi-Chih Wu
    • , David Aurioles-Gamboa
    • , Amy B. Baird
    • , John W. Bickham
    • , Jaume Forcada
    • , Filippo Galimberti
    • , Neil J. Gemmell
    • , Joseph I. Hoffman
    • , Kit M. Kovacs
    • , Mervi Kunnasranta
    • , Christian Lydersen
    • , Tommi Nyman
    • , Larissa Rosa de Oliveira
    • , Anthony J. Orr
    • , Simona Sanvito
    • , Mia Valtonen
    • , Aaron B. A. Shafer
    •  & Jochen B. W. Wolf
  • Article |

    Rising temperatures and predator avoidance constrain herbivore activity on the southern African savannas, forcing them into ever-tightening windows of activity, in a ‘timescape of fear’.

    • Michiel P. Veldhuis
    • , Tim R. Hofmeester
    • , Guy Balme
    • , Dave J. Druce
    • , Ross T. Pitman
    •  & Joris P.G.M. Cromsigt
  • Article |

    A mathematical model of sexual conflict shows that kin discrimination and group dispersal inhibit harmful male behaviours at an individual level but kin discrimination intensifies sexual conflict at the population level.

    • Gonçalo S. Faria
    • , Andy Gardner
    •  & Pau Carazo
  • Article |

    Compiling a global geo-database of >30,000 range shifts, the authors show that marine species closely track shifting isotherms, whereas terrestrial species lag behind, probably due to wider thermal safety margins and movement constraints imposed by human activities.

    • Jonathan Lenoir
    • , Romain Bertrand
    • , Lise Comte
    • , Luana Bourgeaud
    • , Tarek Hattab
    • , Jérôme Murienne
    •  & Gaël Grenouillet
  • Article |

    By assembling the genomes of 22 Fraxinus species and conducting comparisons including further species, the authors identify candidate loci for emerald ash borer resistance that have evolved convergently.

    • Laura J. Kelly
    • , William J. Plumb
    • , David W. Carey
    • , Mary E. Mason
    • , Endymion D. Cooper
    • , William Crowther
    • , Alan T. Whittemore
    • , Stephen J. Rossiter
    • , Jennifer L. Koch
    •  & Richard J. A. Buggs
  • Article |

    Analysis of metacarpal trabecular and cortical bone reveals hand use diversity, including power and precision grips, among early hominins, and shows that Australopithecus sediba combined great ape-like arboreal grasping power with human-like manipulation ability.

    • Christopher J. Dunmore
    • , Matthew M. Skinner
    • , Ameline Bardo
    • , Lee R. Berger
    • , Jean-Jacques Hublin
    • , Dieter H. Pahr
    • , Antonio Rosas
    • , Nicholas B. Stephens
    •  & Tracy L. Kivell
  • Article |

    The accumulation of somatic genetic variation in clonal species leads to heterogeneity among autonomous modules (ramets). Ultra-deep resequencing of single ramets in a clonal seagrass shows somatic genetic drift resulting in genetically differentiated ramets that are targets of selection.

    • Lei Yu
    • , Christoffer Boström
    • , Sören Franzenburg
    • , Till Bayer
    • , Tal Dagan
    •  & Thorsten B. H. Reusch
  • Article |

    A new radiocarbon chronology for the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition at the Bulgarian site of Bacho Kiro reveals Homo sapiens-associated sediments as early as 46,940 yr bp.

    • Helen Fewlass
    • , Sahra Talamo
    • , Lukas Wacker
    • , Bernd Kromer
    • , Thibaut Tuna
    • , Yoann Fagault
    • , Edouard Bard
    • , Shannon P. McPherron
    • , Vera Aldeias
    • , Raquel Maria
    • , Naomi L. Martisius
    • , Lindsay Paskulin
    • , Zeljko Rezek
    • , Virginie Sinet-Mathiot
    • , Svoboda Sirakova
    • , Geoffrey M. Smith
    • , Rosen Spasov
    • , Frido Welker
    • , Nikolay Sirakov
    • , Tsenka Tsanova
    •  & Jean-Jacques Hublin
  • Article |

    Twin births are not frequent in human populations despite twin-bearing mothers having elevated fitness. Here, the authors show that dizygotic twinning is the outcome of an adaptive conditional ovulatory strategy of switching from single to double ovulation with increasing age.

    • Wade N. Hazel
    • , Robert Black
    • , Richard C. Smock
    • , Rebecca Sear
    •  & Joseph L. Tomkins
  • Article |

    Biodiversity time series from temperate regions reveal that marine communities in warmer places gain species but lose individuals with warming, but colder environments show weaker trends, whereas no systematic relationships between biodiversity and temperature change were detectable for terrestrial communities.

    • Laura H. Antão
    • , Amanda E. Bates
    • , Shane A. Blowes
    • , Conor Waldock
    • , Sarah R. Supp
    • , Anne E. Magurran
    • , Maria Dornelas
    •  & Aafke M. Schipper
  • Article |

    By analysing pooled whole-genome sequences from two species of Darwin’s finches, both before and after interbreeding and back-crossing, the authors show that gene exchange between the two species is asymmetric and female biased.

    • Sangeet Lamichhaney
    • , Fan Han
    • , Matthew T. Webster
    • , B. Rosemary Grant
    • , Peter R. Grant
    •  & Leif Andersson
  • Article |

    Using historic measles epidemiological data from England and Wales in a competing-risks framework, the authors find that metapopulation aggregation in neighbouring towns and cities played an important role in driving national dynamics in the prevaccination era.

    • Max S. Y. Lau
    • , Alexander D. Becker
    • , Hannah M. Korevaar
    • , Quentin Caudron
    • , Darren J. Shaw
    • , C. Jessica E. Metcalf
    • , Ottar N. Bjørnstad
    •  & Bryan T. Grenfell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Genomic comparisons with a new amphioxus chromosome-scale genome assembly reveal details of the early evolution of vertebrate genomes.

    • Oleg Simakov
    • , Ferdinand Marlétaz
    • , Jia-Xing Yue
    • , Brendan O’Connell
    • , Jerry Jenkins
    • , Alexander Brandt
    • , Robert Calef
    • , Che-Huang Tung
    • , Tzu-Kai Huang
    • , Jeremy Schmutz
    • , Nori Satoh
    • , Jr-Kai Yu
    • , Nicholas H. Putnam
    • , Richard E. Green
    •  & Daniel S. Rokhsar
  • Article |

    The loss of biodiversity at the global scale has been difficult to reconcile with observations of no net loss at local scales. Vegetation surveys across European temperate forests show that this may be explained by the replacement of small-ranged species with large-ranged ones, driven by nitrogen deposition.

    • Ingmar R. Staude
    • , Donald M. Waller
    • , Markus Bernhardt-Römermann
    • , Anne D. Bjorkman
    • , Jörg Brunet
    • , Pieter De Frenne
    • , Radim Hédl
    • , Ute Jandt
    • , Jonathan Lenoir
    • , František Máliš
    • , Kris Verheyen
    • , Monika Wulf
    • , Henrique M. Pereira
    • , Pieter Vangansbeke
    • , Adrienne Ortmann-Ajkai
    • , Remigiusz Pielech
    • , Imre Berki
    • , Markéta Chudomelová
    • , Guillaume Decocq
    • , Thomas Dirnböck
    • , Tomasz Durak
    • , Thilo Heinken
    • , Bogdan Jaroszewicz
    • , Martin Kopecký
    • , Martin Macek
    • , Marek Malicki
    • , Tobias Naaf
    • , Thomas A. Nagel
    • , Petr Petřík
    • , Kamila Reczyńska
    • , Fride Høistad Schei
    • , Wolfgang Schmidt
    • , Tibor Standovár
    • , Krzysztof Świerkosz
    • , Balázs Teleki
    • , Hans Van Calster
    • , Ondřej Vild
    •  & Lander Baeten
  • Article |

    Experimental evolution shows that host–plasmid coevolution in the presence of antibiotics promoted the emergence of multidrug resistance via two distinct conjugative plasmids in communities of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae once antibiotics were removed.

    • Hannah Jordt
    • , Thibault Stalder
    • , Olivia Kosterlitz
    • , José M. Ponciano
    • , Eva M. Top
    •  & Benjamin Kerr
  • Article |

    In 355 coastal coral reef fish species, body size changed with warming, but the direction of a species’ body size response to warming through time was generally consistent with its response to temperature changes through space, rather than generally negative.

    • Asta Audzijonyte
    • , Shane A. Richards
    • , Rick D. Stuart-Smith
    • , Gretta Pecl
    • , Graham J. Edgar
    • , Neville S. Barrett
    • , Nicholas Payne
    •  & Julia L. Blanchard
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A genome assembly of the sterlet, Acipenser ruthenus, reveals a whole-genome duplication early in the evolution of the entire sturgeon lineage and provides details about the rediploidization of the genome.

    • Kang Du
    • , Matthias Stöck
    • , Susanne Kneitz
    • , Christophe Klopp
    • , Joost M. Woltering
    • , Mateus Contar Adolfi
    • , Romain Feron
    • , Dmitry Prokopov
    • , Alexey Makunin
    • , Ilya Kichigin
    • , Cornelia Schmidt
    • , Petra Fischer
    • , Heiner Kuhl
    • , Sven Wuertz
    • , Jörn Gessner
    • , Werner Kloas
    • , Cédric Cabau
    • , Carole Iampietro
    • , Hugues Parrinello
    • , Chad Tomlinson
    • , Laurent Journot
    • , John H. Postlethwait
    • , Ingo Braasch
    • , Vladimir Trifonov
    • , Wesley C. Warren
    • , Axel Meyer
    • , Yann Guiguen
    •  & Manfred Schartl
  • Article |

    Combining a large-scale manipulative field experiment with long-term genetic assays and modelling, the authors document evidence of ecological–evolutionary feedbacks between aphids and parasitoids through resistance conferred by heritable bacterial symbionts.

    • Anthony R. Ives
    • , Brandon T. Barton
    • , Rachel M. Penczykowski
    • , Jason P. Harmon
    • , Kyungsun L. Kim
    • , Kerry Oliver
    •  & Volker C. Radeloff