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Organelles are entities within a eukaryotic cell that have a specialised function. Examples of organelles include the nucleus, the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi, mitochondria, vacuoles or lysosomes, and chloroplasts (in plants).
Mitoflashes are dynamic events in mitochondria, associated with depolarization and release of reactive oxygen species, and have been associated with several cellular functions. The authors now show that in neurons, dendritic mitoflashes are involved in structural postsynaptic changes during LTP.
Extracellular vesicles have emerged as having key roles in liver disease. In this Review, Szabo and Momen-Heravi discuss the functions of extracellular vesicles in liver disease pathogenesis and progression, and explore their potential use as biomarkers, therapeutic targets and tools for therapy delivery.
Ban et al. show that optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and cardiolipin mediate mitochondrial fusion. In contrast, a homotypic trans-OPA1 interaction independent of cardiolipin mediates membrane tethering to form mitochondrial cristae.
Fusion between the inner membranes of two mitochondria requires the GTPase optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), but the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. A study now shows that fusion of two liposomes can be performed by OPA1 tethered to just one liposome, through an interaction with the phospholipid cardiolipin on the opposing liposome.
Due to their varied metabolic and signalling roles, mitochondria are important in mediating cell behaviour. By altering mitochondrial function, two studies now identify metabolite-induced epigenetic changes that have profound effects on haematopoietic stem cell fate and function.