Nanoscale devices

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Achieving both low energy consumption and radiation-hardness is highly challenging in memory devices. Here, the authors demonstrate a sub-10 fJ/bit, radiation-hard nanoelectromechanical non-volatile memory through structural and material approaches.

    • Yong-Bok Lee
    • , Min-Ho Kang
    •  & Jun-Bo Yoon
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The limitation in metal-semiconductor contact has been a major challenge for high-performance organic field-effect transistors. Here, the authors fabricate the contact by transferring platinum electrode on solution-processed organic films, realizing ultralow total contact resistance down to 14 Ω ∙ cm.

    • Junpeng Zeng
    • , Daowei He
    •  & Xinran Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Flexible and coherent light generation is of paramount importance to enable new functionalities in integrated silicon photonics. Here the authors, develop an optical parametric oscillator with high conversion efficiency and high output power, based on the third order nonlinearity in a silicon nitride microresonator

    • Edgar F. Perez
    • , Grégory Moille
    •  & Kartik Srinivasan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Frequency-bin qubits get the best of time-bin and dual-rail encodings, but require external modulators and pulse shapers to build arbitrary states. Here, instead, the authors work directly on-chip by controlling the interference of biphoton amplitudes generated in multiple, coherently-pumped ring resonators.

    • Marco Clementi
    • , Federico Andrea Sabattoli
    •  & Daniele Bajoni
  • Article
    | Open Access

    2D semiconductors are attracting increasing attention as potentially scalable channels for future transistors, but the scaling of their contact length remains challenging. Here, the authors report the realization of 1D semimetal-2D semiconductor contacts based on individual carbon nanotubes with contact length down to 2 nm.

    • Xuanzhang Li
    • , Yang Wei
    •  & Yuegang Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is an established characterization technique used to study electrically active defects in 3D semiconductors. Here, the authors show that DLTS can also be applied to monolayer semiconductors, enabling in-situ characterization of the energy states of different defects and their interactions.

    • Yanfei Zhao
    • , Mukesh Tripathi
    •  & Andras Kis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors show robust edge state transport in patterned nanoribbon networks produced on epigraphene—graphene that is epitaxially grown on non-polar faces of SiC wafers. The edge state forms a zero-energy, one-dimensional ballistic network with dissipationless nodes at ribbon–ribbon junctions.

    • Vladimir S. Prudkovskiy
    • , Yiran Hu
    •  & Walt A. de Heer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Quantum-dot spin qubits in Si/SiGe quantum wells require a large and uniform valley splitting for robust operation and scalability. Here the authors introduce and characterize a new heterostructure with periodic oscillations of Ge atoms in the quantum well, which could enhance the valley splitting.

    • Thomas McJunkin
    • , Benjamin Harpt
    •  & M. A. Eriksson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Valleytronic devices employ the electronic valley degree of freedom to realize potential low-power electronic applications. Here, the authors utilize a topological semiconductor to engineer valley polarization transistors with long lifetimes and demonstrate low-power neuromorphic functionality at room temperature.

    • Jiewei Chen
    • , Yue Zhou
    •  & Yang Chai
  • Article
    | Open Access

    One of the possible events signaling a neutrinoless double beta decay is a Xe atom decaying into a Ba ion and two electrons. Aiming at the realisation of a detector for such a process, the authors show that Ba ions can be efficiently trapped (chelated) in vacuum by an organic molecule layer on a surface.

    • P. Herrero-Gómez
    • , J. P. Calupitan
    •  & J. T. White
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Applications of ultra-low-loss photonic circuitry in quantum photonics, in particular including triggered single photon sources, are rare. Here, the authors show how InAs quantum dot single photon sources can be integrated onto wafer-scale, CMOS compatible ultra-low loss silicon nitride photonic circuits.

    • Ashish Chanana
    • , Hugo Larocque
    •  & Marcelo Davanco
  • Article
    | Open Access

    2D and 3D conductive MOFs have performed well in the fields of energy and catalysis. Here, authors synthesise a 1D conductive MOF in which DDA ligands are connected by double Cu ions, forming nanoribbon layers with π-d conjugated nanoribbon planes and out-of-plane π-π stacking, which facilitates charge transport along two dimensions.

    • Shengcong Shang
    • , Changsheng Du
    •  & Jianyi Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The realization of Jones matrix with full eight free parameters is particularly challenging. Here, the authors construct spatially varying Jones matrix with eight free parameters by cascading two-layer metasurfaces and use it for new optical functionalities.

    • Yanjun Bao
    • , Fan Nan
    •  & Baojun Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Neuromorphic computing memristors are attractive to construct low-power- consumption electronic textiles. Here, authors report an ultralow-power textile memristor network of Ag/MoS2/HfAlOx/carbon nanotube with reconfigurable characteristics and firing energy consumption of 1.9 fJ/spike.

    • Tianyu Wang
    • , Jialin Meng
    •  & Lin Chen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Traditional carbon nitride membranes are generally presented with random stacking behavior leading to undesired separation performance. Here, authors create lamellar membranes via polycation pillaring to afford adaptive subnanochannels, overcoming the selectivity-permeability trade-off in forward osmosis.

    • Yang Wang
    • , Tingting Lian
    •  & Markus Antonietti
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Future optical devices, e.g., for AR and VR, will require sophisticated flat metaoptics with unique optical functionalities. The authors demonstrate a metaobjective based on electrically switchable metallic polymer metalenses, whose optical states and focal length is adjustable via CMOS compatible voltages.

    • Julian Karst
    • , Yohan Lee
    •  & Harald Giessen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Designing efficient reconfigurable field effect transistors remains a challenge. Here, the authors develop a transistor with three distinct operation modes, realized directly on an industrial 22nm FDSOI platform, demonstrating a reconfigurable analog circuit element with signal follower, phase shifter, and frequency doubler operation.

    • Maik Simon
    • , Halid Mulaosmanovic
    •  & Jens Trommer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electrochemical hydrogen-participating processes are commonly relevant in multiple clean energy technologies. Here, authors achieve in situ quantification of H sorption kinetics during Pd-catalyzed CO2 reduction, unravelling its key role within the interfacial network of local pH, proton donors and CO2 molecules.

    • Zhangyan Mu
    • , Na Han
    •  & Mengning Ding
  • Article
    | Open Access

    While transmon is the most widely used superconducting qubit, the search for alternative qubit designs with improved characteristic is ongoing. Hyyppä et al. demonstrate a novel superconducting qubit, the unimon, that combines high anharmonicity and protection against low-frequency charge noise and flux noise.

    • Eric Hyyppä
    • , Suman Kundu
    •  & Mikko Möttönen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The adoption of photonic synapses with biosimilarity to realize analog signal transmission is of significance in realizing artificial illuminance modulation responses. Here, the authors report a biomimetic ocular prosthesis system based on quantum dots embedded photonic synapses with improved depression properties through mid-gap trap.

    • Seongchan Kim
    • , Yoon Young Choi
    •  & Jeong Ho Cho
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The application of electric fields >1 V/nm in solid state devices could provide access to unexplored phenomena, but it is currently difficult to implement. Here, the authors develop a double-sided ionic liquid gating technique to generate electric fields as large as 4 V/nm across few-layer WSe2, leading to field-induced semiconductor-to-metal transitions.

    • Benjamin I. Weintrub
    • , Yu-Ling Hsieh
    •  & Kirill I. Bolotin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Coherently interfacing microwave and optical radiation at the single photon level is an outstanding challenge in quantum technologies. Here, the authors show bi-directional on-chip conversion between MW and optical frequencies exploiting piezoelectric actuation of a gallium phosphide optomechanical resonator.

    • Robert Stockill
    • , Moritz Forsch
    •  & Simon Gröblacher
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Understanding the behaviors of droplets at nanoscales is crucial to many applications, yet it remains experimentally challenging to track them in real time. Here, Sbarra et al. use a miniature optomechanical resonator to probe the evaporation dynamics of attoliter droplets with millisecond resolution.

    • Samantha Sbarra
    • , Louis Waquier
    •  & Ivan Favero
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The motion of a vibrating object is set by the way it is held. Here, the authors show a nanomechanical resonator reversibly slides on its supporting substrate as it vibrates and exploit this unconventional dynamics to quantify friction at the nanoscale.

    • Yue Ying
    • , Zhuo-Zhi Zhang
    •  & Guo-Ping Guo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    We show frequency domain mirrors that provide reflections of optical mode propagation in the frequency domain. We theoretically investigated the mirror properties and experimentally demonstrate it using polarization and coupled-resonator-based coupling on thin film Lithium Niobate.

    • Yaowen Hu
    • , Mengjie Yu
    •  & Marko Lončar
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Slow light effects are interesting for telecommunications and quantum photonics applications. Here, the authors use coupled exciton-surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a hybrid monolayer WSe2-metallic waveguide structure to demonstrate a 1300-fold reduction of the SPP group velocity.

    • Matthew Klein
    • , Rolf Binder
    •  & John R. Schaibley
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Topological superconductivity (TSC) is predicted to exist in nanowires with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) when they are in proximity to superconductors, with a key signature being zero-energy states in conductance measurements. Here, using weak-SOC carbon nanotubes as the nanowires, the authors show that similar looking zero-energy states can appear even in nanowires which cannot, in principle, host TSC.

    • Lauriane C. Contamin
    • , Lucas Jarjat
    •  & Matthieu R. Delbecq
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Experimental studies of the Casimir effect have involved only interactions between two bodies so far. Here, the authors observe a micrometer-thick cantilever under the Casimir force exerted by microspheres from two sides simultaneously.

    • Zhujing Xu
    • , Peng Ju
    •  & Tongcang Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The potential energy efficiency of impact ionization field-effect transistors (I2FETs) is usually limited by stringent operational conditions. Here, the authors report I2FETs based on 2D WSe2, showing average subthreshold slopes down to 2.3 mV/dec and on/off ratios of ~106 at room temperature and bias voltages <1 V.

    • Haeju Choi
    • , Jinshu Li
    •  & Sungjoo Lee
  • Article
    | Open Access

    3D depth sensing with structured light enables simultaneous imaging of multiple objects, but has limited field of view and low efficiency. Here, the authors demonstrate 3D imaging with scattered light from a metasurface composed of periodic supercells, covering a 180° field of view with a high-density dot array.

    • Gyeongtae Kim
    • , Yeseul Kim
    •  & Junsuk Rho
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Topological materials hold great promise for dissipationless information transmission. Here, the authors create Chern insulator junctions between domains with different Chern numbers in MnBi2Te4 to realize the basic operation of a topological circuit.

    • Dmitry Ovchinnikov
    • , Jiaqi Cai
    •  & Xiaodong Xu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Multiterminal Josephson junctions may provide a novel way to realize topologically non-trivial band structures in an n-dimensional phase space. Here, the authors experimentally demonstrate the proposed necessary conditions to measure these states.

    • Gino V. Graziano
    • , Mohit Gupta
    •  & Vlad S. Pribiag
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Probing fundamental quantum systems and their phase change is interesting. Here the authors demonstrate the existence of mobile quantum solid phase composed of dimerized 3He atoms and topology-induced vacancies using 3He adsorbed on carbon nanotube.

    • I. Todoshchenko
    • , M. Kamada
    •  & P. J. Hakonen
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Designing an efficient platform that enables verbal communication without vocalization remains a challenge. Here, the authors propose a silent speech interface by utilizing a deep learning algorithm combined with strain sensors attached near the subject’s mouth, able to collect 100 words and classify at a high accuracy rate.

    • Taemin Kim
    • , Yejee Shin
    •  & Ki Jun Yu