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Low-resource settings can face additional challenges in managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, the authors use mathematical modelling to investigate transmission in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and quantify control measures needed to prevent the hospital system becoming overwhelmed.
Contact tracing is critical to controlling COVID-19, but most protocols only “forward-trace” to notify people who were recently exposed. Using a stochastic branching-process model, the authors show that “bidirectional” tracing to identify infector individuals and their other infectees robustly improves outbreak control.
Dengue is endemic in the Dominican Republic, and causes regular outbreaks, whereas Zika and chikungunya are emerging infections in the area. Here, the authors show that outbreaks of the emerging infections could not be predicted by seasonal dengue dynamics.
Safely reducing the necessary duration of quarantine for COVID-19 could lessen the economic impacts of the pandemic. Here, the authors demonstrate that testing on exit from quarantine is more effective than testing on entry, and can enable quarantine to be reduced from fourteen to seven days.
Understanding the infection parameters and host responses against SARS-CoV-2 require data from large cohorts using standardized methods. Here, the authors optimize a serum ELISA protocol that has minimal cross-reactivity and flexible sample collection workflow in an attempt to standardize data generation and help inform on COVID-19 pandemic and immunity.
Here, using pattern-learning analyses of structural, functional, and diffusion brain scans in ~40,000 UK Biobank participants, the authors provide population-scale evidence that the default network is associated with perceived social isolation.
Although many COVID-19 cases are mild, most information about symptoms is derived from hospitalized patients. Here, the authors link self-reported symptom surveys to primary care data to describe the longitudinal dynamics of COVID-19 in non-hospitalized individuals.
Large-scale population screening can provide insights to levels of ongoing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Here, the authors report a citywide screening of ~10,000,000 residents of Wuhan and show that SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence was very low five to eight weeks after the end of lockdown.
Yellow fever is absent from the Asia/Pacific region, despite presence of the mosquito vector. Here, the authors demonstrate that mosquitoes collected from field sites across the region are capable of transmitting yellow fever virus, indicating that vector competence is not a barrier to disease spread.
The Netherlands is a country highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, Slot, Hogema and colleagues report a low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence one month into the outbreak and provide insights into virus exposure by region and age group when widespread non-pharmaceutical interventions are in place.
Children with SARS-CoV-2 infection are more likely to have mild symptoms and may be asymptomatic, but underlying reasons remain unclear. Here, the authors show cellular, cytokine and antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in three children who repeatedly tested negative for the virus by PCR, despite high exposure in the household.
Current wearable motion capture technologies are unable to accurately detect dynamic motion of human limbs due to drift and instability problems. Here, the authors report a wearable motion capture device combining tri-axis velocity sensor and inertial sensors for accurate 3D limb motion capture.
In this study, Adi Stern and colleagues use full genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 to look at the rate of infections in Israel. They report that social distancing had a significant effect on minimising the rate of transmission, and find evidence for transmission heterogeneity (superspreading events).
The use of hydroxychloroquine therapy for the treatment of Covid-19 is controversial. In this study, Lyngbakken and colleagues present a randomized controlled trial and show that the drug has no antiviral effects in humans infected with SARS-CoV-2.
Syndromic surveillance for COVID-19 could help to identify areas with increasing transmission. Here, the authors show that increased reports of changes in smell and taste measured at the population level are correlated with the increased COVID-19-related hospital admissions.
In some contexts, rapid detection of COVID-19 from CT scans can be crucial for optimal patient management. Here, the authors present a Deep Learning system for this task with multi-center data, human reader comparison and age stratified results.
Healthcare workers may be at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection than the general population. Here, the authors report 19% seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among 2,149 employees in a Swedish hospital. Seroprevalence was associated with patient contact and higher than the seroprevalence in the community in same time period.
Early identification of COVID-19 patients at risk of progression may facilitate more individually aligned treatment plans. Here the authors develop an online nomogram incorporating CT severity score and clinical characteristics for early predicting the disease progression risk among COVID-19 pneumonia patients.
SARS-CoV-2 infection is widely diagnosed by RT-PCR, but RNA extraction is a bottleneck for fast and cheap diagnosis. Here, the authors develop protocols to perform RT-PCR directly on heat-inactivated subject samples or samples lysed with readily available detergents and benchmark performance against 597 clinically diagnosed patient samples.
New York City is one of the areas most affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the United States, and there has been large variation in rates of hospitalisation and death by city borough. Here, the authors show that boroughs with the largest reduction in daily commutes also had the lowest SARS-CoV-2 prevalence.
Identification of individuals at risk of severe COVID-19 disease could inform treatment and public health planning. Here, the authors develop and validate a risk prediction model for COVID-19 mortality in Israel by building a model for severe respiratory infection and recalibrating it using COVID-19 case fatality rates.
Deep tissue infections can be difficult to treat due to limited light penetration associated with phototherapies. Here, the authors report on a bacterial capture system for antibiotic delivery and microwave-assisted killing of MRSA in osteomyelitis and demonstrate application in vivo.
COVID-19 disease is less common in children than adults, but the extent to which SARS-CoV-2 infections are missed through symptom-driven testing is not well understood. In this study, the authors show that approximately 1% of children seeking care for reasons other than COVID-19 at a Seattle hospital in March/April 2020 were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2.
Hospital systems are critical, especially in providing healthcare services after disasters. Here, the authors revealed that in Lima the spatial distribution of health service demands mismatches the capacities of hospitals after earthquakes, leaving large zones on the periphery significantly underserved.
Releasing COVID-19 lockdown measures risks increases in transmission. Here, the authors estimate the increase in transmission rate for different regions in Italy and estimate that isolation of 5.5% exposed and highly infectious individuals would be needed to compensate for a 40% increase in transmission.
In medical diagnosis a doctor aims to explain a patient’s symptoms by determining the diseases causing them, while existing diagnostic algorithms are purely associative. Here, the authors reformulate diagnosis as a counterfactual inference task and derive new counterfactual diagnostic algorithms.
Surfactant protein B (SP-B) deficiency is a genetic lung disease that results in lethal respiratory distress within months of birth. Here, the authors describe a gene therapy strategy using a rationally designed AAV6 capsid that restores surfactant homeostasis, prevents lung injury, and improves survival in a mouse model of SP-B deficiency.
Here, the authors present a concept for targeted clinical magnetic resonance imaging for relatively small targets in the body. They use an artificial resonator for spatial redistribution and passive focusing of the radiofrequency magnetic flux and demonstrate feasibility for targeted breast imaging.
High resolution intravascular imaging in the brain is limited by the high tortuosity of the vasculature. Here the authors present a fiber optic imaging technology using high-frequency optical coherence tomography (HF-OCT) to provide volumetric high resolution images in the highly tortuous cerebral vasculature.
Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnancy is a major cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here, the authors combine performance estimates of standard rapid diagnostic tests with modelling to assess whether screening at antenatal visits improves upon current intermittent preventative therapy.
Congenital infection of SARS-CoV-2 has been described, but the transmission routes remain unclear. Here, the authors report evidence of transplacental transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a neonate born to a mother infected in the last trimester and presenting with neurological compromise.
SARS-CoV-2 is causing a global pandemic in which the implementation of serology can support decision making in different scenarios. Here, the authors compare the outcome of eight commercially available assays to virus neutralization and discuss their use in diagnostics and exposure assessment of SARS-CoV-2.
Genetic data from large cohorts of unrelated individuals can be used to create polygenic risk scores, which could be used to predict individual risk of developing a specific disease. Here the authors show that smaller cohorts of related individuals can provide similarly powerful predictive ability.
Surgical adhesions are organ-joining bands of scar tissue that remain clinically untreatable. Here, the authors show that adhesions are formed through expansive mesothelial membrane bridges, and that blocking these with small molecules prevents formation of adhesions in mice.
Here, the authors implement a mathematical model that describes how Baloxavir antiviral-induced inhibition of influenza virus replication in infected individuals affects the spread of the virus during epidemics, suggesting that both the scaling up and acceleration of treatment would avert substantial influenza morbidity and mortality every year.
Electronic Health Records (EHR) are subject to noise, biases and missing data. Here, the authors present MixEHR, a multi-view Bayesian framework related to collaborative filtering and latent topic models for EHR data integration and modeling.
Developing noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for lupus nephritis (LN) diagnosis is an important clinical goal. Here the authors identify urinary proteins correlated with active LN and disease severity, which differ across ethnicities but collectively outperform the current clinical method.
Senolytics have the potential to extend healthspan by selectively killing senescent cells (SCs), but senolytics that target Bcl-xl may cause platelet toxicity. Here, the authors generated a Bcl-xl proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) senolytic, which effectively clears SCs and rejuvenates tissue stem and progenitor cells in naturally aged mice without causing severe thrombocytopenia.
The role of automatic electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis in clinical practice is limited by the accuracy of existing models. In that context, the authors present a Deep Neural Network (DNN) that recognizes different abnormalities in ECG recordings which matches or outperform cardiology and emergency resident medical doctors.
Designing reliable, scalable and energy efficient sensor-based activity recognition system remains a challenge. Here, the authors demonstrate low power wearable wireless network system based on magnetic induction which is integrated with deep recurrent neural networks for human activity recognition.
The choice of food intake is at least partially influenced by genetics, even though the effect sizes appear rather modest. Here, Cole et al. perform GWAS for food intake (85 individual food items and 85 derived dietary patterns) and test potential causal relationships with cardiometabolic traits using Mendelian randomization.
Tooth whitening has attracted significant interest; however, most techniques are potentially destructive. Here, the authors model the replacement of standard abrasives in toothpaste with piezoelectric particles for catalytic degradation of organic stains and report less damage than hydrogen peroxide treatment.
Some exercises exacerbate chronic inflammation and muscle fibrosis in chronic myopathy. Here, the authors show that senescence of fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) in response to exercise induces muscle regeneration, and impaired FAP senescence worsens inflammation and fibrosis in chronic myopathy in mice.
Reconstructive microsurgery is limited by the precision that human hands can achieve. Here, the authors demonstrate in a randomized clinical pilot trial the feasibility of robot-assisted supermicrosurgery using a dedicated microsurgical robot for the completion of lymphatico-venous anastomosis in the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema
Restoration of blood flow to damaged sites has commonly involved treatment with pro-angiogenic molecules but these have undesired side effects. Here the authors present a microchannel-patterned gelatin hydrogel that is able to rescue mouse and porcine models of hindlimb ischemia.
Biodegradable implants are of great interest in orthopaedic applications but have been limited by low mechanical strength. Here, the authors examine systematically in detail the strengthening of biodegradable zinc by alloying with beneficial elements using mechanical, biodegradability and biocompatibility testing.
Here, the authors meta-analyze clinical trials comparing adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and find that oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant improves the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in healthy immunologically naive children.
Spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) bacteria is a global concern, but contributing factors remain unclear. Here, authors analyze distribution of AR bacteria in households from three ethnic groups in Tanzania and find that livelihood factors are more strongly associated with AR prevalence than antibiotic use.