Health care

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors implement a mathematical model that describes how Baloxavir antiviral-induced inhibition of influenza virus replication in infected individuals affects the spread of the virus during epidemics, suggesting that both the scaling up and acceleration of treatment would avert substantial influenza morbidity and mortality every year.

    • Zhanwei Du
    • , Ciara Nugent
    • , Alison P. Galvani
    • , Robert M. Krug
    •  & Lauren Ancel Meyers
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Electronic Health Records (EHR) are subject to noise, biases and missing data. Here, the authors present MixEHR, a multi-view Bayesian framework related to collaborative filtering and latent topic models for EHR data integration and modeling.

    • Yue Li
    • , Pratheeksha Nair
    • , Xing Han Lu
    • , Zhi Wen
    • , Yuening Wang
    • , Amir Ardalan Kalantari Dehaghi
    • , Yan Miao
    • , Weiqi Liu
    • , Tamas Ordog
    • , Joanna M. Biernacka
    • , Euijung Ryu
    • , Janet E. Olson
    • , Mark A. Frye
    • , Aihua Liu
    • , Liming Guo
    • , Ariane Marelli
    • , Yuri Ahuja
    • , Jose Davila-Velderrain
    •  & Manolis Kellis
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Developing noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for lupus nephritis (LN) diagnosis is an important clinical goal. Here the authors identify urinary proteins correlated with active LN and disease severity, which differ across ethnicities but collectively outperform the current clinical method.

    • Samantha Stanley
    • , Kamala Vanarsa
    • , Samar Soliman
    • , Deena Habazi
    • , Claudia Pedroza
    • , Gabriel Gidley
    • , Ting Zhang
    • , Shree Mohan
    • , Evan Der
    • , Hemant Suryawanshi
    • , Thomas Tuschl
    • , Jill Buyon
    • , Chaim Putterman
    • , Chi Chiu Mok
    • , Michelle Petri
    • , Ramesh Saxena
    •  & Chandra Mohan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Senolytics have the potential to extend healthspan by selectively killing senescent cells (SCs), but senolytics that target Bcl-xl may cause platelet toxicity. Here, the authors generated a Bcl-xl proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) senolytic, which effectively clears SCs and rejuvenates tissue stem and progenitor cells in naturally aged mice without causing severe thrombocytopenia.

    • Yonghan He
    • , Xuan Zhang
    • , Jianhui Chang
    • , Ha-Neui Kim
    • , Peiyi Zhang
    • , Yingying Wang
    • , Sajid Khan
    • , Xingui Liu
    • , Xin Zhang
    • , Dongwen Lv
    • , Lin Song
    • , Wen Li
    • , Dinesh Thummuri
    • , Yaxia Yuan
    • , Janet S. Wiegand
    • , Yuma T. Ortiz
    • , Vivekananda Budamagunta
    • , Jennifer H. Elisseeff
    • , Judith Campisi
    • , Maria Almeida
    • , Guangrong Zheng
    •  & Daohong Zhou
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The role of automatic electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis in clinical practice is limited by the accuracy of existing models. In that context, the authors present a Deep Neural Network (DNN) that recognizes different abnormalities in ECG recordings which matches or outperform cardiology and emergency resident medical doctors.

    • Antônio H. Ribeiro
    • , Manoel Horta Ribeiro
    • , Gabriela M. M. Paixão
    • , Derick M. Oliveira
    • , Paulo R. Gomes
    • , Jéssica A. Canazart
    • , Milton P. S. Ferreira
    • , Carl R. Andersson
    • , Peter W. Macfarlane
    • , Wagner Meira Jr.
    • , Thomas B. Schön
    •  & Antonio Luiz P. Ribeiro
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The choice of food intake is at least partially influenced by genetics, even though the effect sizes appear rather modest. Here, Cole et al. perform GWAS for food intake (85 individual food items and 85 derived dietary patterns) and test potential causal relationships with cardiometabolic traits using Mendelian randomization.

    • Joanne B. Cole
    • , Jose C. Florez
    •  & Joel N. Hirschhorn
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tooth whitening has attracted significant interest; however, most techniques are potentially destructive. Here, the authors model the replacement of standard abrasives in toothpaste with piezoelectric particles for catalytic degradation of organic stains and report less damage than hydrogen peroxide treatment.

    • Yang Wang
    • , Xinrong Wen
    • , Yanmin Jia
    • , Ming Huang
    • , Feifei Wang
    • , Xuehui Zhang
    • , Yunyang Bai
    • , Guoliang Yuan
    •  & Yaojin Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Some exercises exacerbate chronic inflammation and muscle fibrosis in chronic myopathy. Here, the authors show that senescence of fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) in response to exercise induces muscle regeneration, and impaired FAP senescence worsens inflammation and fibrosis in chronic myopathy in mice.

    • Yuki Saito
    • , Takako S. Chikenji
    • , Takashi Matsumura
    • , Masako Nakano
    •  & Mineko Fujimiya
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Reconstructive microsurgery is limited by the precision that human hands can achieve. Here, the authors demonstrate in a randomized clinical pilot trial the feasibility of robot-assisted supermicrosurgery using a dedicated microsurgical robot for the completion of lymphatico-venous anastomosis in the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema

    • Tom J. M. van Mulken
    • , Rutger M. Schols
    • , Andrea M. J. Scharmga
    • , Bjorn Winkens
    • , Raimondo Cau
    • , Ferry B. F. Schoenmakers
    • , Shan S. Qiu
    • , René R. W. J. van der Hulst
    • , Xavier H. A. Keuter
    • , Thomas M. A. S. Lauwers
    • , Andrzej A. Piatkowski
    • , Juliette E. Hommes
    • , Dionne S. Deibel
    • , Jessie E. M. Budo
    • , Jai Scheerhoorn
    •  & Maud E. P. Rijkx
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Restoration of blood flow to damaged sites has commonly involved treatment with pro-angiogenic molecules but these have undesired side effects. Here the authors present a microchannel-patterned gelatin hydrogel that is able to rescue mouse and porcine models of hindlimb ischemia.

    • Jung Bok Lee
    • , Dae-Hyun Kim
    • , Jeong-Kee Yoon
    • , Dan Bi Park
    • , Hye-Seon Kim
    • , Young Min Shin
    • , Wooyeol Baek
    • , Mi-Lan Kang
    • , Hyun Jung Kim
    •  & Hak-Joon Sung
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Biodegradable implants are of great interest in orthopaedic applications but have been limited by low mechanical strength. Here, the authors examine systematically in detail the strengthening of biodegradable zinc by alloying with beneficial elements using mechanical, biodegradability and biocompatibility testing.

    • Hongtao Yang
    • , Bo Jia
    • , Zechuan Zhang
    • , Xinhua Qu
    • , Guannan Li
    • , Wenjiao Lin
    • , Donghui Zhu
    • , Kerong Dai
    •  & Yufeng Zheng
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors meta-analyze clinical trials comparing adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and find that oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant improves the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in healthy immunologically naive children.

    • Yu-Ju Lin
    • , Chiao-Ni Wen
    • , Ying-Ying Lin
    • , Wen-Chi Hsieh
    • , Chia-Chen Chang
    • , Yi-Hsuan Chen
    • , Chian-Hui Hsu
    • , Yun-Jui Shih
    • , Chang-Hsun Chen
    •  & Chi-Tai Fang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Spread of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) bacteria is a global concern, but contributing factors remain unclear. Here, authors analyze distribution of AR bacteria in households from three ethnic groups in Tanzania and find that livelihood factors are more strongly associated with AR prevalence than antibiotic use.

    • Murugan Subbiah
    • , Mark A. Caudell
    • , Colette Mair
    • , Margaret A. Davis
    • , Louise Matthews
    • , Robert J. Quinlan
    • , Marsha B. Quinlan
    • , Beatus Lyimo
    • , Joram Buza
    • , Julius Keyyu
    •  & Douglas R. Call
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Memories linking environmental cues to alcohol reward are involved in the development and maintenance of heavy drinking. Here, the authors show that a single dose of ketamine, given after retrieval of alcohol-reward memories, disrupts the reconsolidation of these memories and reduces drinking in humans.

    • Ravi K. Das
    • , Grace Gale
    • , Katie Walsh
    • , Vanessa E. Hennessy
    • , Georges Iskandar
    • , Luke A. Mordecai
    • , Brigitta Brandner
    • , Merel Kindt
    • , H. Valerie Curran
    •  & Sunjeev K. Kamboj
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, in a cohort of infants unexposed to maternal antibiotics, the authors analyse the gut microbiome development of children born naturally and by caesarean section, finding a higher abundance of known pathogens in the latter group, and an association between these bacteria and a higher incidence of respiratory infections in the first year of life.

    • Marta Reyman
    • , Marlies A. van Houten
    • , Debbie van Baarle
    • , Astrid A. T. M. Bosch
    • , Wing Ho Man
    • , Mei Ling J. N. Chu
    • , Kayleigh Arp
    • , Rebecca L. Watson
    • , Elisabeth A. M. Sanders
    • , Susana Fuentes
    •  & Debby Bogaert
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Food intake shapes intestinal microbiome composition, which in turn shapes adaptive immune responses. Here the authors show that dietary tryptophan restriction (DTR) protects mice from subsequent autoimmune neuropathology challenge by altering intestinal microbiota, highlighting the potential of diet-regulated microbiota to prevent immune pathology.

    • Jana K. Sonner
    • , Melanie Keil
    • , Maren Falk-Paulsen
    • , Neha Mishra
    • , Ateequr Rehman
    • , Magdalena Kramer
    • , Katrin Deumelandt
    • , Julian Röwe
    • , Khwab Sanghvi
    • , Lara Wolf
    • , Anna von Landenberg
    • , Hendrik Wolff
    • , Richa Bharti
    • , Iris Oezen
    • , Tobias V. Lanz
    • , Florian Wanke
    • , Yilang Tang
    • , Ines Brandao
    • , Soumya R. Mohapatra
    • , Lisa Epping
    • , Alexandra Grill
    • , Ralph Röth
    • , Beate Niesler
    • , Sven G. Meuth
    • , Christiane A. Opitz
    • , Jürgen G. Okun
    • , Christoph Reinhardt
    • , Florian C. Kurschus
    • , Wolfgang Wick
    • , Helge B. Bode
    • , Philip Rosenstiel
    •  & Michael Platten
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Currently there are no therapeutics for long lasting central nervous system injuries, that can address the complex injury cascade that develops over years. Here the authors report biomaterial scaffolds that release 17β-estradiol (E2) at nanomolar concentrations over the course of 1–10 years via slow hydrolysis in vitro.

    • Anthony R. D’Amato
    • , Devan L. Puhl
    • , Samuel A. T. Ellman
    • , Bailey Balouch
    • , Ryan J. Gilbert
    •  & Edmund F. Palermo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Previous studies have suggested that being hungry causes people to make more selfish and less prosocial decisions. Here, the authors carried out a series of studies to test this claim and found that the effect of acute hunger was very weak at best.

    • Jan A. Häusser
    • , Christina Stahlecker
    • , Andreas Mojzisch
    • , Johannes Leder
    • , Paul A. M. Van Lange
    •  & Nadira S. Faber
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bacteriophages can bind targets with only a few copies of a display peptide while most nanoparticles with thousands achieve poor binding. Here the authors form hierarchical arrangements of phage peptides to delivery siRNA across the blood brain barrier.

    • Lin-Ping Wu
    • , Davoud Ahmadvand
    • , Junan Su
    • , Arnaldur Hall
    • , Xiaolong Tan
    • , Z. Shadi Farhangrazi
    •  & S. Moein Moghimi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Diagnosing brain cancer is frequently difficult and requires specialist equipment. Here, the authors develop their previous attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method and incoporate the use of disposable silicon wafers for diagnosing brain cancer using serum samples.

    • Holly J. Butler
    • , Paul M. Brennan
    • , James M. Cameron
    • , Duncan Finlayson
    • , Mark G. Hegarty
    • , Michael D. Jenkinson
    • , David S. Palmer
    • , Benjamin R. Smith
    •  & Matthew J. Baker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Changes in body mass index (BMI) during infancy and childhood follow a well-characterized pattern. Here, Helgeland et al. perform genome-wide association studies for BMI at 12 time points between birth and 8 years of age and find transient associations at the LEP and LEPR loci.

    • Øyvind Helgeland
    • , Marc Vaudel
    • , Petur B. Juliusson
    • , Oddgeir Lingaas Holmen
    • , Julius Juodakis
    • , Jonas Bacelis
    • , Bo Jacobsson
    • , Haakon Lindekleiv
    • , Kristian Hveem
    • , Rolv Terje Lie
    • , Gun Peggy Knudsen
    • , Camilla Stoltenberg
    • , Per Magnus
    • , Jørn V. Sagen
    • , Anders Molven
    • , Stefan Johansson
    •  & Pål Rasmus Njølstad
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, Shah et al. perform a meta-analysis and show that people who live or work in agricultural land in Southeast Asia are on average 1.7 times more likely to be infected with a pathogen than controls, suggesting that agricultural land-use increases infectious disease risk.

    • Hiral A. Shah
    • , Paul Huxley
    • , Jocelyn Elmes
    •  & Kris A. Murray
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been associated with impaired birth outcomes. Here, Bové et al. report evidence of black carbon particle deposition on the fetal side of human placentae, including at early stages of pregnancy, suggesting air pollution could affect birth outcome through direct effects on the fetus.

    • Hannelore Bové
    • , Eva Bongaerts
    • , Eli Slenders
    • , Esmée M. Bijnens
    • , Nelly D. Saenen
    • , Wilfried Gyselaers
    • , Peter Van Eyken
    • , Michelle Plusquin
    • , Maarten B. J. Roeffaers
    • , Marcel Ameloot
    •  & Tim S. Nawrot
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) are beneficial in several classes of cardiovascular patients. However, whether their perioperative use is beneficial and/or safe in cardiac surgery is unclear. Here the authors perform a multicenter retrospective cohort study showing that preoperative and postoperative use of RASi is associated with reduction of mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    • Qian Ding
    • , Zugui Zhang
    • , Hong Liu
    • , Huang Nie
    • , Mark Berguson
    • , Jordan E. Goldhammer
    • , Nilas Young
    • , Douglas Boyd
    • , Rohinton Morris
    •  & Jianzhong Sun
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The gut microbiome is an important regulator of metabolic health. Here the authors show that intestinal bacteria metabolize dietary linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-cis-12-octadecenoic acid (HYA) which confers host resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.

    • Junki Miyamoto
    • , Miki Igarashi
    • , Keita Watanabe
    • , Shin-ichiro Karaki
    • , Hiromi Mukouyama
    • , Shigenobu Kishino
    • , Xuan Li
    • , Atsuhiko Ichimura
    • , Junichiro Irie
    • , Yukihiko Sugimoto
    • , Tetsuya Mizutani
    • , Tatsuya Sugawara
    • , Takashi Miki
    • , Jun Ogawa
    • , Daniel J. Drucker
    • , Makoto Arita
    • , Hiroshi Itoh
    •  & Ikuo Kimura
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Detection of viral biomarkers is important for disease treatment and prevention. Here, the authors report on a system that uses an electrical pulse-induced electrochemical sensor for the detection of hepatitis E virus, and demonstrate potential application of the device.

    • Ankan Dutta Chowdhury
    • , Kenshin Takemura
    • , Tian-Cheng Li
    • , Tetsuro Suzuki
    •  & Enoch Y. Park
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Oral care based foods are of great interest for increasing the dental health of animals. Here, the authors report on computer simulations to optimise the texture and geometry of food in order to maximise tooth abrasion and enhance cleaning efficiency.

    • C. G. Skamniotis
    • , M. Elliott
    •  & M. N. Charalambides
  • Article
    | Open Access

    MRI has been used for the non-invasive imaging of human brain aging but is sensitive to both tissue molecular composition and water content. Here the authors present a quantitative MRI method that discriminates these factors and describe region-specific changes in the molecular composition of the aging human brain.

    • Shir Filo
    • , Oshrat Shtangel
    • , Noga Salamon
    • , Adi Kol
    • , Batsheva Weisinger
    • , Sagiv Shifman
    •  & Aviv A. Mezer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Iatrogenic injury of the ureters is a feared complication of laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Here the authors present the NIR fluorophore ZW800-1 as an intraoperative imaging agent for ureter mapping, showing its safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and efficacy in healthy volunteers and patients undergoing abdominopelvic surgery.

    • Kim S. de Valk
    • , Henricus J. Handgraaf
    • , Marion M. Deken
    • , Babs G. Sibinga Mulder
    • , Adrianus R. Valentijn
    • , Anton G. Terwisscha van Scheltinga
    • , Joeri Kuil
    • , Michiel J. van Esdonk
    • , Jaap Vuijk
    • , Rob F. Bevers
    • , Koen C. Peeters
    • , Fabian A. Holman
    • , John V. Frangioni
    • , Jacobus Burggraaf
    •  & Alexander L. Vahrmeijer
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The availability of labelled training data is one of the practical obstacles towards wide application of machine learning models in medicine. Here the authors develop a weakly supervised deep learning model for the classification of aortic malformations using unlabelled cardiac MRI sequences from the UK biobank.

    • Jason A. Fries
    • , Paroma Varma
    • , Vincent S. Chen
    • , Ke Xiao
    • , Heliodoro Tejeda
    • , Priyanka Saha
    • , Jared Dunnmon
    • , Henry Chubb
    • , Shiraz Maskatia
    • , Madalina Fiterau
    • , Scott Delp
    • , Euan Ashley
    • , Christopher Ré
    •  & James R. Priest
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A genetic diagnosis remains unattainable for many individuals with a rare disease because of incomplete knowledge about the genetic basis of many diseases. Here, the authors present the web-based tool GADO (GeneNetwork Assisted Diagnostic Optimization) that uses public RNA-seq data for prioritization of candidate genes.

    • Patrick Deelen
    • , Sipko van Dam
    • , Johanna C. Herkert
    • , Juha M. Karjalainen
    • , Harm Brugge
    • , Kristin M. Abbott
    • , Cleo C. van Diemen
    • , Paul A. van der Zwaag
    • , Erica H. Gerkes
    • , Evelien Zonneveld-Huijssoon
    • , Jelkje J. Boer-Bergsma
    • , Pytrik Folkertsma
    • , Tessa Gillett
    • , K. Joeri van der Velde
    • , Roan Kanninga
    • , Peter C. van den Akker
    • , Sabrina Z. Jan
    • , Edgar T. Hoorntje
    • , Wouter P. te Rijdt
    • , Yvonne J. Vos
    • , Jan D. H. Jongbloed
    • , Conny M. A. van Ravenswaaij-Arts
    • , Richard Sinke
    • , Birgit Sikkema-Raddatz
    • , Wilhelmina S. Kerstjens-Frederikse
    • , Morris A. Swertz
    •  & Lude Franke
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico in 2017 and resulted in a complete loss of activity of the Public Health Laboratories. Here, the authors discuss the approach taken and tools developed to re-establish activity in these laboratories using a quality management system and the lessons learned in this process.

    • Margaret C. Hardy
    • , Rita C. Stinnett
    • , Kristine J. Kines
    • , Danisha M. Rivera-Nazario
    • , David E. Lowe
    • , Alexandra M. Mercante
    • , Nathalie Gonzalez Jimenez
    • , Rosa I. Cuevas Ruiz
    • , Héctor I. Rivera Arbolay
    • , Rafael L. Gonzalez Peña
    • , Mayra Toro
    • , Alma A. Trujillo
    • , Claudia L. Pappas
    • , Anna C. Llewellyn
    • , Francisco Candal
    • , María Burgos Garay
    • , Gerardo A. Gomez
    • , Jeniffer Concepcion Acevedo
    • , Marisela Ansbro
    • , Hercules Moura
    • , Michael W. Shaw
    • , Atis Muehlenbachs
    • , Lovisa C. Romanoff
    • , Brittany J. Sunshine
    • , Dale A. Rose
    • , Anita Patel
    • , Craig N. Shapiro
    • , S. Carolina Luna-Pinto
    • , Satish K. Pillai
    •  & Eduardo O’Neill
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Foreign aid is necessary to control tropical diseases in endemic countries. Here the authors outline the steps taken to control malaria in Africa since 2000 and present an economic model to propose that US$25−30 per capita will be needed to avoid a disease trap.

    • Eric Maskin
    • , Célestin Monga
    • , Josselin Thuilliez
    •  & Jean-Claude Berthélemy
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Convolutional neural networks have been applied to various areas of medical imaging and histology. Here the authors develop an automated approach using interpretable neural networks to determine Alzheimer’s disease plaque and cerebral amyloid angiopathy burden in post-mortem human brain tissue.

    • Ziqi Tang
    • , Kangway V. Chuang
    • , Charles DeCarli
    • , Lee-Way Jin
    • , Laurel Beckett
    • , Michael J. Keiser
    •  & Brittany N. Dugger
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Gastric aspiration severely injures donor lungs, frequently making them unacceptable for transplantation. Here the authors show that an interventional cross-circulation platform enables the regeneration of severely damaged lungs in a swine model of gastric aspiration injury.

    • Brandon A. Guenthart
    • , John D. O’Neill
    • , Jinho Kim
    • , Dawn Queen
    • , Scott Chicotka
    • , Kenmond Fung
    • , Michael Simpson
    • , Rachel Donocoff
    • , Michael Salna
    • , Charles C. Marboe
    • , Katherine Cunningham
    • , Susan P. Halligan
    • , Holly M. Wobma
    • , Ahmed E. Hozain
    • , Alexander Romanov
    • , Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
    •  & Matthew Bacchetta
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Structural variations in gastric cancer impact progression. Here, the authors perform whole-genome sequencing on 168 gastric cancer patients and identified tandem-duplications of super-enhancer ZFP36L2 in 10% of gastric cancer, and mutational signatures in tumors with cadherin 1 mutations that associated with poor prognoses.

    • Rui Xing
    • , Yong Zhou
    • , Jun Yu
    • , Yingyan Yu
    • , Yongzhan Nie
    • , Wen Luo
    • , Chao Yang
    • , Teng Xiong
    • , William K. K. Wu
    • , Zhongwu Li
    • , Yang Bing
    • , Shuye Lin
    • , Yaping Zhang
    • , Yingqi Hu
    • , Lin Li
    • , Lijuan Han
    • , Chen Yang
    • , Shaogang Huang
    • , Suiping Huang
    • , Rui Zhou
    • , Jing Li
    • , Kaichun Wu
    • , Daiming Fan
    • , Guangbo Tang
    • , Jianhua Dou
    • , Zhenggang Zhu
    • , Jiafu Ji
    • , Xiaodong Fang
    •  & Youyong Lu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Microbes inhabit built environments and could contribute to degradation of surfaces especially in damp conditions. Here the authors explore how communities of microbes and their metabolites affect four types of built surfaces under varying environmental conditions.

    • Simon Lax
    • , Cesar Cardona
    • , Dan Zhao
    • , Valerie J. Winton
    • , Gabriel Goodney
    • , Peng Gao
    • , Neil Gottel
    • , Erica M. Hartmann
    • , Chris Henry
    • , Paul M. Thomas
    • , Scott T. Kelley
    • , Brent Stephens
    •  & Jack A. Gilbert
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for psychiatric disorders, but its mechanism in relieving symptoms is unclear. Here, the authors show that DBS of ventral internal capsule/ventral striatum (VCVS) may act by enhancing prefrontal cortex oscillations that in turn enhance cognitive control.

    • A. S. Widge
    • , S. Zorowitz
    • , I. Basu
    • , A. C. Paulk
    • , S. S. Cash
    • , E. N. Eskandar
    • , T. Deckersbach
    • , E. K. Miller
    •  & D. D. Dougherty
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The genetic underpinnings of alcohol use disorder and consumption are incompletely understood. Here, the authors perform GWAS for Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Identification Test-Consumption scores and AUD diagnosis from electronic health records of 274,424 individuals and identify a total of 18 associated loci.

    • Henry R. Kranzler
    • , Hang Zhou
    • , Rachel L. Kember
    • , Rachel Vickers Smith
    • , Amy C. Justice
    • , Scott Damrauer
    • , Philip S. Tsao
    • , Derek Klarin
    • , Aris Baras
    • , Jeffrey Reid
    • , John Overton
    • , Daniel J. Rader
    • , Zhongshan Cheng
    • , Janet P. Tate
    • , William C. Becker
    • , John Concato
    • , Ke Xu
    • , Renato Polimanti
    • , Hongyu Zhao
    •  & Joel Gelernter
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Imaging the mouse brain using glass cranial windows has limitations in terms of flexibility and long-term imaging. Here the authors engineer transparent polymer skulls that can fit various skull morphologies and can be implanted for over 300 days, enabling simultaneous high resolution brain imaging and electrophysiology across large cortical areas.

    • Leila Ghanbari
    • , Russell E. Carter
    • , Mathew L. Rynes
    • , Judith Dominguez
    • , Gang Chen
    • , Anant Naik
    • , Jia Hu
    • , Md Abdul Kader Sagar
    • , Lenora Haltom
    • , Nahom Mossazghi
    • , Madelyn M. Gray
    • , Sarah L. West
    • , Kevin W. Eliceiri
    • , Timothy J. Ebner
    •  & Suhasa B. Kodandaramaiah
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The role of subpatent infections for malaria transmission and elimination is unclear. Here, Slater et al. analyse several malaria datasets to quantify the density, detectability, course of infection and infectiousness of subpatent infections.

    • Hannah C. Slater
    • , Amanda Ross
    • , Ingrid Felger
    • , Natalie E. Hofmann
    • , Leanne Robinson
    • , Jackie Cook
    • , Bronner P. Gonçalves
    • , Anders Björkman
    • , Andre Lin Ouedraogo
    • , Ulrika Morris
    • , Mwinyi Msellem
    • , Cristian Koepfli
    • , Ivo Mueller
    • , Fitsum Tadesse
    • , Endalamaw Gadisa
    • , Smita Das
    • , Gonzalo Domingo
    • , Melissa Kapulu
    • , Janet Midega
    • , Seth Owusu-Agyei
    • , Cécile Nabet
    • , Renaud Piarroux
    • , Ogobara Doumbo
    • , Safiatou Niare Doumbo
    • , Kwadwo Koram
    • , Naomi Lucchi
    • , Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
    • , Jacklin Mosha
    • , Alfred Tiono
    • , Daniel Chandramohan
    • , Roly Gosling
    • , Felista Mwingira
    • , Robert Sauerwein
    • , Richard Paul
    • , Eleanor M Riley
    • , Nicholas J White
    • , Francois Nosten
    • , Mallika Imwong
    • , Teun Bousema
    • , Chris Drakeley
    •  & Lucy C Okell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Lack of knowledge of individual infection history hinders understanding of immunological interactions among DENV serotypes. Here, the authors introduce a framework to infer the relationship between unobserved infection history and subsequent infection and disease risk, and find complex dependencies.

    • Tim K. Tsang
    • , Samson L. Ghebremariam
    • , Lionel Gresh
    • , Aubree Gordon
    • , M. Elizabeth Halloran
    • , Leah C. Katzelnick
    • , Diana Patricia Rojas
    • , Guillermina Kuan
    • , Angel Balmaseda
    • , Jonathan Sugimoto
    • , Eva Harris
    • , Ira M. Longini Jr.
    •  & Yang Yang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    In 2014 Guangzhou, China experienced its worse dengue epidemic on record. To determine the reasons for this the authors model historical data under combinations of four time-varying factors and find that past epidemics were limited by one or more unfavourable conditions, but the 2014 epidemic faced none of these restraints.

    • Rachel J. Oidtman
    • , Shengjie Lai
    • , Zhoujie Huang
    • , Juan Yang
    • , Amir S. Siraj
    • , Robert C. Reiner Jr.
    • , Andrew J. Tatem
    • , T. Alex Perkins
    •  & Hongjie Yu
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Dermal myofibroblasts are responsible for fibrosis development in scleroderma. Here the authors show that a bioengineered recombinant human TRAIL ligand reverses established fibrosis in mouse models of scleroderma by targeting the death receptor 5 and inducing apoptosis of myofibroblasts.

    • Jong-Sung Park
    • , Yumin Oh
    • , Yong Joo Park
    • , Ogyi Park
    • , Hoseong Yang
    • , Stephanie Slania
    • , Laura K. Hummers
    • , Ami A. Shah
    • , Hyoung-Tae An
    • , Jiyeon Jang
    • , Maureen R. Horton
    • , Joseph Shin
    • , Harry C. Dietz
    • , Eric Song
    • , Dong Hee Na
    • , Eun Ji Park
    • , Kwangmeyung Kim
    • , Kang Choon Lee
    • , Viktor V. Roschke
    • , Justin Hanes
    • , Martin G. Pomper
    •  & Seulki Lee
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors explore the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and inflammation in a multi-cohort study and show that educational attainment is most strongly related to inflammation, suggesting that socioeconomic disadvantage in young adulthood is independently associated with later life inflammation.

    • Eloïse Berger
    • , Raphaële Castagné
    • , Marc Chadeau-Hyam
    • , Murielle Bochud
    • , Angelo d’Errico
    • , Martina Gandini
    • , Maryam Karimi
    • , Mika Kivimäki
    • , Vittorio Krogh
    • , Michael Marmot
    • , Salvatore Panico
    • , Martin Preisig
    • , Fulvio Ricceri
    • , Carlotta Sacerdote
    • , Andrew Steptoe
    • , Silvia Stringhini
    • , Rosario Tumino
    • , Paolo Vineis
    • , Cyrille Delpierre
    •  & Michelle Kelly-Irving
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Sex-stratified medicine is an important and understudied field. Here the authors investigate in a systematic study of the Danish population differences in incidence, risk, and several aspects of diagnoses between sexes and find differences across all areas of disease.

    • David Westergaard
    • , Pope Moseley
    • , Freja Karuna Hemmingsen Sørup
    • , Pierre Baldi
    •  & Søren Brunak
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Seasonal malaria chemoprevention provides substantial benefit for young children, but resistance to used drugs will likely develop. Here, Chotsiri et al. evaluate the use of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine as a regimen in 179 children, and population-based simulations suggest that small children would benefit from a higher and extended dosage.

    • Palang Chotsiri
    • , Issaka Zongo
    • , Paul Milligan
    • , Yves Daniel Compaore
    • , Anyirékun Fabrice Somé
    • , Daniel Chandramohan
    • , Warunee Hanpithakpong
    • , François Nosten
    • , Brian Greenwood
    • , Philip J. Rosenthal
    • , Nicholas J. White
    • , Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo
    •  & Joel Tarning
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Organs from donors with transmissible viral infections, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), are not offered for transplantation due to a high risk of transmission. Here, Galasso et al. develop a method for treatment of HCV-infected human donor lungs that is safe and prevents HCV transmission in the pig model.

    • Marcos Galasso
    • , Jordan J. Feld
    • , Yui Watanabe
    • , Mauricio Pipkin
    • , Cara Summers
    • , Aadil Ali
    • , Robert Qaqish
    • , Manyin Chen
    • , Rafaela V. P. Ribeiro
    • , Khaled Ramadan
    • , Layla Pires
    • , Vanderlei S. Bagnato
    • , Cristina Kurachi
    • , Vera Cherepanov
    • , Gray Moonen
    • , Anajara Gazzalle
    • , Thomas K. Waddell
    • , Mingyao Liu
    • , Shaf Keshavjee
    • , Brian C. Wilson
    • , Atul Humar
    •  & Marcelo Cypel