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  • Several childhood disorders, including infantile colic and cyclical vomiting syndrome, are thought to be related to migraine. In this Perspective, Gelfand and Abu-Arafeh present evidence for each of these disorders to be considered as part of a ‘childhood migraine syndrome’.

    • Ishaq Abu-Arafeh
    • Amy A. Gelfand
  • In this Perspective, the authors discuss the steps necessary to achieve predictive modelling of neurological diseases with human induced pluripotent stem cells, including applications to diagnosis and prognosis in the context of a precision medicine paradigm.

    • Pia Rivetti di Val Cervo
    • Dario Besusso
    • Elena Cattaneo
  • New tools are being developed for the standardization and digitization of clinical data from patients with multiple sclerosis. In this Perspective, D’Souza and colleagues address the multifaceted impact of these tools on patient care and highlight the challenges and opportunities they create.

    • Marcus D’Souza
    • Athina Papadopoulou
    • Ludwig Kappos
  • In this Perspective, the authors discuss the mechanisms underlying the complex relationship between lesion size and functional recovery after spinal cord injury, highlighting various complications that can limit the accuracy of outcome prediction in patients and in animal models.

    • Karim Fouad
    • Phillip G. Popovich
    • Jan M. Schwab
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common occurrence in COVID-19, an infectious disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In this article, the authors consider how lung innervation might crosstalk with the immune system to modulate lung function and influence outcomes in COVID-19.

    • Francesco De Virgiliis
    • Simone Di Giovanni
  • In this Perspective, Pezzini and Padovani critique the evidence for neurological manifestations of COVID-19, including epidemiological, neuropathological and neuroimaging data, and highlight the need for further work to establish whether SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for these symptoms.

    • Alessandro Pezzini
    • Alessandro Padovani
  • In this Perspectives article, Jan Lünemann and colleagues discuss the potential of immune reconstitution therapies to induce remission in individuals with multiple sclerosis. They highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this remission and suggest future areas of research.

    • Jan D. Lünemann
    • Tobias Ruck
    • Heinz Wiendl
  • Migraine is one of the world’s most prevalent diseases, and approximately 2% of the general population experiences chronic migraine. Edvinsson and colleagues argue that inflammation could have an important role in migraine chronification, through a mechanism termed neurogenic neuroinflammation.

    • Lars Edvinsson
    • Kristian Agmund Haanes
    • Karin Warfvinge
  • Paterson and colleagues describe how stable isotope labelling kinetics (SILK) can be used to determine protein production and clearance rates. They highlight the promise of SILK studies for elucidating the role of pathogenic proteins in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease.

    • Ross W. Paterson
    • Audrey Gabelle
    • Randall J. Bateman
  • In the future, robotic devices that augment human care provision could transform dementia services and support. In this Perspectives article, Moyle discusses upcoming challenges in dementia care and suggests guidelines for the development and integration of smart assistive technologies.

    • Wendy Moyle
  • Here, Bouthour et al. argue that the success of closed-loop deep brain stimulation based on electrophysiological biomarkers in patients with Parkinson disease could inspire novel treatments for other neuropsychiatric disorders in which symptoms are driven by pathological activity in motor, cognitive and limbic brain networks.

    • Walid Bouthour
    • Pierre Mégevand
    • Paul Krack
  • The opioid crisis constitutes a public health challenge at the intersection of two interrelated medical problems — opioid addiction and chronic pain. In this Perspectives article, Volkow and Koroschetz discuss how neurologists are uniquely positioned to help address the opioid crisis.

    • Nora D. Volkow
    • Walter J. Koroshetz
  • In this Perspectives article, Smith et al. address the misconceptions about the clinical and pathological features of chronic traumatic encephalopathy that cause confusion and controversy not only in the public but also among health-care professionals.

    • Douglas H. Smith
    • Victoria E. Johnson
    • William Stewart
  • The development of treatment for multiple sclerosis over the past 25 years is a success of translational medicine. In this Timeline article, Tintore et al. chart major developments and discuss the implications for current and future patient management.

    • Mar Tintore
    • Angela Vidal-Jordana
    • Jaume Sastre-Garriga
  • Many disorders of brain and behaviour affect human and veterinary patients. In this Perspectives, Orrin Devinsky and colleagues outline a cross-species approach to understanding neurological and psychiatric conditions, including pain, cognitive decline, epilepsy, anxiety and CNS infections, and propose that collaborations between physicians and veterinarians will generate new insights for therapy development.

    • Orrin Devinsky
    • Jordyn M. Boesch
    • Barbara Natterson-Horowitz
  • New research is increasingly challenging old notions of an immunologically isolated CNS. In this Perspectives article, Jun Chen and colleagues highlight discoveries on the beneficial roles of regulatory immune cells in brain repair and regeneration, and discuss their promise as therapies for neurological disorders.

    • Xiaoming Hu
    • Rehana K. Leak
    • Jun Chen