Food as medicine: targeting the uraemic phenotype in chronic kidney disease

  • Denise Mafra
  • Natalia A. Borges
  • Peter Stenvinkel
Review Article


  • Rationing of scarce health-care resources is distressing. Clinicians therefore require clear guidance, which should be developed systematically and transparently through multi-stakeholder engagement. Rationing is seldom required in high-income settings but is often necessary in low-income settings. Global solidarity and health system strengthening are required to reduce the need for rationing.

    • Mohammed R. Moosa
    • Valerie A. Luyckx
  • Living donor kidney transplantation benefits the recipient. However, kidney failure can occur in a small fraction of donors — the risk is not uniform but varies according to donor characteristics. Studies to date have failed to match on important factors, such as era, environment or family history. Long-term studies with well-matched healthy controls are therefore needed.

    • Arthur J. Matas
    • Andrew D. Rule
  • Patients with kidney diseases should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination and the available data suggest that replication-defective viral-vectored vaccines and mRNA vaccines are safe to use. As vaccine responses are likely to be lower in patients with kidney diseases than in the general population, highly potent vaccines should be preferred.

    • Martin Windpessl
    • Annette Bruchfeld
    • Andreas Kronbichler
  • Venezuela is going through a humanitarian crisis that has severely impacted all programmes of kidney replacement therapy — dialysis coverage has decreased markedly, particularly in small towns and rural areas, and almost all peritoneal dialysis and deceased donor organ procurement for kidney transplantation have been discontinued.

    • Ezequiel Bellorin-Font
    • Raul G. Carlini

Nature Careers