Volume 11 Issue 8, August 2014

Volume 11 Issue 8

Cover image supplied by M. J. Gora, V. J. Madden and G. J. Tearney, Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, USA. A 3D image of the oesophagus created by rendering data obtained from an unsedated human subject using a swallowable tethered capsule endomicroscopy device. The capsule employs optical coherence tomography: optics within the capsule spin a focused beam around its circumference, acquiring cross-sectional images as it traverses the organ via peristalsis. A flexible tether containing an optical fibre is attached to the capsule and can be used to control its position and to remove it from the mouth so that it can be disinfected and reused.

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    The majority of patients with coeliac disease are undiagnosed, leading to debate about the utility of screening. The heterogeneous clinical presentation, which includes asymptomatic forms, can partially explain the difficulties faced when identifying coeliac disease. Now, Kurppa and colleagues add another element to the debate by strengthening the arguments for general screening.

    • Carlo Catassi
    •  & Alessio Fasano
  • News & Views |

    A new study suggests that co-prescription of low-dose aspirin and PPIs increases the incidence of small-bowel mucosal breaks. Should we be concerned about the potential negative interactions of these drugs? Or is the balance of evidence still substantially tipped towards the need for PPIs to protect against aspirin-induced upper gastrointestinal damage?

    • Angel Lanas
    •  & Carlos Sostres
  • News & Views |

    Placebo analgesia is increasingly appreciated in many difficult to treat chronic functional gastrointestinal disorders such as IBS. However, investigations of interactions between psychological and biological placebo factors are still in early stages. Now, technologies have been developed that enable neural mechanisms of placebo analgesia to be studied more directly in humans.

    • QiQi Zhou
    •  & G. Nicholas Verne

    Nature Outlook:

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Several important changes in disease classification and improvements in the management of patients with acute pancreatitis have been achieved in the past few years. This Review provides an overview of these changes, the effect on patient management and outcome, and outlines their scientific basis.

    • Olaf J. Bakker
    • , Yama Issa
    • , Hjalmar C. van Santvoort
    • , Marc G. Besselink
    • , Nicolien J. Schepers
    • , Marco J. Bruno
    • , Marja A. Boermeester
    •  & Hein G. Gooszen
  • Review Article |

    Radiation enteropathy remains an important obstacle to uncomplicated cancer cures after radiation therapy of pelvic and abdominal malignancies. Moreover, the prevalence of radiation enteropathy in the population exceeds that of IBD. This Review introduces the clinical problem of radiation enteropathy, discusses contemporary concepts in pathogenesis, current therapeutic options and strategies for development of new radioprotective agents.

    • Martin Hauer-Jensen
    • , James W. Denham
    •  & H. Jervoise N. Andreyev
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors highlight the strengths and weaknesses of MRI for response assessment after chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer, and on its ability to predict tumour response at the time of primary diagnosis. New functional magnetic resonance technology is also outlined.

    • Regina G. H. Beets-Tan
    •  & Geerard L. Beets
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, various aspects of pretransplant donor liver management are discussed, including donor preconditioning, conventional and dynamic preservation techniques and ex vivo organ viability monitoring and graft pretreatment. The technique and clinical outcomes of split-liver transplantation are evaluated. Furthermore, the literature on rare liver donor conditions with non-standard ethical or technical issues is assessed with respect to clinical relevance.

    • Maxim Nebrig
    • , Peter Neuhaus
    •  & Andreas Pascher
  • Review Article |

    The gut microbiota is now acknowledged to have a profound effect on human health and disease. Here, Stephen Collins explores the role of the gut microbiota in the development of IBS, describing experimental evidence and clinical observational and trial data that implicates the gut microbiota in the manifestation of IBS.

    • Stephen M. Collins

    Collection:

Consensus Statement