Volume 11 Issue 11, November 2014

Volume 11 Issue 11

Cover image supplied by M. J. Gora, V. J. Madden and G. J. Tearney, Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, USA. A 3D image of the oesophagus created by rendering data obtained from an unsedated human subject using a swallowable tethered capsule endomicroscopy device. The capsule employs optical coherence tomography: optics within the capsule spin a focused beam around its circumference, acquiring cross-sectional images as it traverses the organ via peristalsis. A flexible tether containing an optical fibre is attached to the capsule and can be used to control its position and to remove it from the mouth so that it can be disinfected and reused.

Editorial

Research Highlights

News and Views

  • News & Views |

    The past 10 years have witnessed incredible developments in the treatment of hepatitis C. From an era in which the standard of care was PEG-IFN and ribavirin back in 2004, various interferon-free regimens with direct-acting antivirals are now available or will be soon. Here, major milestones in the hepatitis C treatment revolution are outlined.

    • Stefan Zeuzem
  • News & Views |

    The past 10 years have represented a whirlwind of activity with regard to information on the risk factors, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. I will describe what I consider to be the major advances from both a tumour biology perspective and a clinical perspective over the past 10 years.

    • Gregory J. Gores
  • News & Views |

    Research on the gut microbial communities harboured in the human gut is progressing rapidly owing to the availability of novel and reliable tools for analysis. Dysfunction of the gut microbiota affects human biological fitness at multiple levels, and understanding of these effects needs to be improved to benefit human health.

    • Francisco Guarner
  • News & Views |

    Clinical and basic science discoveries over the past decade have led to considerable improvements in our understanding and care of pancreatic diseases. Findings reported in 10 key papers highlight results that have already substantially altered the care of patients with acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (or soon will).

    • Randall E. Brand
  • News & Views |

    IBD is known to be associated with an abnormal response to an unbalanced gut microbiota in genetically predisposed individuals. The therapeutic goal now is to control progression of the disease. Given the heterogeneity of IBD, the two universes of basic and clinical science must work in parallel to realize the hope of personalized therapy.

    • Jean-Frederic Colombel

    Nature Outlook:

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Coeliac disease is a common gastrointestinal disease that can present at any age. Previous diagnosis relied on duodenal biopsy however contemporary techniques of antibody detection and determination of genetic susceptibility using HLA genotyping have improved diagnostic accuracy and reduced the our reliance on biopsy samples. This Review discusses the diagnostic process in children, adolescents and adults in light of the progress that has been made in developing accurate coeliac disease diagnostic tools.

    • Steffen Husby
    •  & Joseph A. Murray
  • Review Article |

    Gastric cancer accounts for a notable proportion of cancer mortality around the world. Over the past few decades, advances in technology and high-throughput analysis have improved understanding of the molecular aspects of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. This Review discusses these genetic aspects of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.

    • Mairi H. McLean
    •  & Emad M. El-Omar
  • Review Article |

    The balance of procoagulants and antihaemostatic factors, which usually results in haemostasis is more fragile in patients with liver disease. Owing to this added complexity, treating coagulopathy in patients with liver disease can be difficult. As the pathophysiology of coagulopathy is a rapidly progressing field, this Review aims to provide a therapeutic framework by setting out a clinical rationale for the use of available procoagulants.

    • Neeral L. Shah
    • , Nicolas M. Intagliata
    • , Patrick G. Northup
    • , Curtis K. Argo
    •  & Stephen H. Caldwell
  • Review Article |

    IBS is a prevalent condition worldwide that incurs substantial health-care costs. The condition can be difficult to diagnose owing to is multifactorial aetiology. Here, the authors provide an overview of the current approaches available to diagnose IBS, including symptoms, symptom-based criteria, biomarkers and psychological markers. Future directions for the field are also discussed.

    • Ruchit Sood
    • , Graham R. Law
    •  & Alexander C. Ford

    Collection:

Perspectives

    Viewpoint

  • Viewpoint |

    Five of our Advisory Board Members—international experts across different subspecialties—reflect on the progress and frustrations of the past 10 years in gastroenterology and hepatology. They also comment on where effort and money should be invested now, as well as their predictions for progress in the next 10 years.

    • Scott L. Friedman
    • , Eamonn M. M. Quigley
    • , Keith A. Sharkey
    • , Joseph J. Y. Sung
    •  & David C. Whitcomb

Focus

  • Focus |

    10th Anniversary

    November 2014 marks the 10th anniversary of the launch of Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, originally published under the title ofNature Clinical Practice Gastroenterology & Hepatology. To celebrate this milestone, we present a special Anniversary issue. These specially commissioned articles written by members of our international Advisory Board, together with a special infographic, summarize the major advances in gastroenterology and hepatology over the past 10 years alongside predictions for the future.