• Article |

    In comparison to conventional bonds, green bonds have been penalized on the municipal market. However, in recent years the credit quality of green bonds has improved, and they now represent an increasingly feasible option to unlock climate finance.

    • Andreas Karpf
    •  & Antoine Mandel
  • Article |

    A spatially extensive survey of lake CH4 and CO2 emissions in Arctic Alaska shows the source material to be primarily relatively young organic matter (up to about 3,500 years old). Contributions from ancient C sources were twice as large in fine textured sediments.

    • Clayton D. Elder
    • , Xiaomei Xu
    • , Jennifer Walker
    • , Jordan L. Schnell
    • , Kenneth M. Hinkel
    • , Amy Townsend-Small
    • , Christopher D. Arp
    • , John W. Pohlman
    • , Benjamin V. Gaglioti
    •  & Claudia I. Czimczik
  • Article |

    Human behaviour is an important driver of emissions. A system-dynamics model that couples a psychological model of behaviour with a model of emissions and climate change shows that behaviour can influence global temperature in the year 2100 by up to 1.5 °C.

    • Brian Beckage
    • , Louis J. Gross
    • , Katherine Lacasse
    • , Eric Carr
    • , Sara S. Metcalf
    • , Jonathan M. Winter
    • , Peter D. Howe
    • , Nina Fefferman
    • , Travis Franck
    • , Asim Zia
    • , Ann Kinzig
    •  & Forrest M. Hoffman
  • Article |

    Here emission curves are developed for advanced biofuel supply chains to enhance understanding of the relationship between biofuel supply and its potential contribution to climate change mitigation while accounting for landscape heterogeneity.

    • Vassilis Daioglou
    • , Jonathan C. Doelman
    • , Elke Stehfest
    • , Christoph Müller
    • , Birka Wicke
    • , Andre Faaij
    •  & Detlef P. van Vuuren
  • Article |

    The ocean is a key part of the climate system but is often neglected in individual country priorities. Analysis of Nationally Determined Contributions reveals 70% include marine issues. The level of inclusion varies dependent on country factors including vulnerability to rising seas.

    • Natalya D. Gallo
    • , David G. Victor
    •  & Lisa A. Levin
  • Article |

    Climate change may drive migration from affected regions. This study shows that, because skilled individuals will have greater migration opportunities, climate change may lead parents to have fewer children and invest more in each individual child, with consequences for local income inequality.

    • Soheil Shayegh
  • Article |

    The bleaching threat to coral reefs from warming is increasing, but risk locations are not clear. This study relates regional sea surface temperature variability to bleaching sensitivity and the future risk to coral reefs.

    • C. E. Langlais
    • , A. Lenton
    • , S. F. Heron
    • , C. Evenhuis
    • , A. Sen Gupta
    • , J. N. Brown
    •  & M. Kuchinke
  • Article |

    A typology of four perspectives on loss and damage is developed based on the study of actor perspectives, including interviews with stakeholders in research, practice, and policy. This may help with navigation of this necessarily ambiguous territory.

    • Emily Boyd
    • , Rachel A. James
    • , Richard G. Jones
    • , Hannah R. Young
    •  & Friederike E. L. Otto
  • Article |

    The composition of international scientific assessments influences their credibility. This study shows that membership nomination in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was driven by a group of core individuals based on prior institutional co-membership.

    • Philip Leifeld
    •  & Dana R. Fisher
  • Article |

    The use of cross-sectoral strategies, such as the exchange of waste energy through co-location of industry, business and residential areas, is shown to be effective for greenhouse gas and particulate mitigation in this study of 637 Chinese cities.

    • Anu Ramaswami
    • , Kangkang Tong
    • , Andrew Fang
    • , Raj M. Lal
    • , Ajay Singh Nagpure
    • , Yang Li
    • , Huajun Yu
    • , Daqian Jiang
    • , Armistead G. Russell
    • , Lei Shi
    • , Marian Chertow
    • , Yangjun Wang
    •  & Shuxiao Wang
  • Article |

    Warming waters are causing marine species to shift; however, how species found in the cold waters of the Southern Ocean will adapt is unclear. This study projects significant habitat reductions for individual benthic taxa and benthic communities over the next century.

    • Huw J. Griffiths
    • , Andrew J. S. Meijers
    •  & Thomas J. Bracegirdle
  • Article |

    Sea-ice loss has exposed the Arctic Ocean to anomalous heat and freshwater. Climate model experiments suggest that these changes, particularly on multi-decadal timescales, may explain the observed slow-down in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

    • Florian Sévellec
    • , Alexey V. Fedorov
    •  & Wei Liu
  • Article |

    It is often assumed that increased flooding due to sea-level rise will lead to mass migration. However, this study shows that residents of island communities in the Philippines prefer to implement local adaptation measures in response to frequent severe flooding rather than relocate.

    • Ma. Laurice Jamero
    • , Motoharu Onuki
    • , Miguel Esteban
    • , Xyza Kristina Billones-Sensano
    • , Nicholson Tan
    • , Angelie Nellas
    • , Hiroshi Takagi
    • , Nguyen Danh Thao
    •  & Ven Paolo Valenzuela
  • Article |

    Since 1950, a significant reduction in Indian monsoon rainfall has been observed. Here, it is shown that land–ocean temperature contrasts have produced more favourable monsoon conditions since 2002, reviving summer monsoon rainfall over India.

    • Qinjian Jin
    •  & Chien Wang
  • Article |

    The subsurface waters west of the Antarctic Peninsula are warming rapidly. This study shows that changes in coastal winds in East Antarctica are remotely impacting this region and drive the upwelling of warm deep water.

    • Paul Spence
    • , Ryan M. Holmes
    • , Andrew McC. Hogg
    • , Stephen M. Griffies
    • , Kial D. Stewart
    •  & Matthew H. England
  • Article |

    This research presents global baseline estimates of mangrove soil C stocks enabling countries to begin to assess their mangrove soil C stocks and the emissions that might arise from mangrove deforestation.

    • Trisha B. Atwood
    • , Rod M. Connolly
    • , Hanan Almahasheer
    • , Paul E. Carnell
    • , Carlos M. Duarte
    • , Carolyn J. Ewers Lewis
    • , Xabier Irigoien
    • , Jeffrey J. Kelleway
    • , Paul S. Lavery
    • , Peter I. Macreadie
    • , Oscar Serrano
    • , Christian J. Sanders
    • , Isaac Santos
    • , Andrew D. L. Steven
    •  & Catherine E. Lovelock
  • Article |

    Greater convective activity is anticipated with anthropogenic climate change. Model results now indicate that the size and frequency of large hail events will likely increase over the US, particularly in southern and central regions, increasing the risk of hail damage.

    • Julian C. Brimelow
    • , William R. Burrows
    •  & John M. Hanesiak
  • Article |

    The boreal forest is being transformed by changes in its climate–fire regime. Analysis now shows that lightning drives year-to-year and long-term ignition and burned area trends in boreal North America.

    • Sander Veraverbeke
    • , Brendan M. Rogers
    • , Mike L. Goulden
    • , Randi R. Jandt
    • , Charles E. Miller
    • , Elizabeth B. Wiggins
    •  & James T. Randerson
  • Article |

    The social cost of carbon (SCC) is usually calculated by an approach that gives less importance to future generations and does not consider well-being distribution. This study presents an alternative that takes these aspects into account.

    • Matthew Adler
    • , David Anthoff
    • , Valentina Bosetti
    • , Greg Garner
    • , Klaus Keller
    •  & Nicolas Treich
  • Article |

    It is difficult to objectively evaluate climate negotiation outcomes. This study shows that climate negotiation participants are pessimistic about the specific approach of voluntary pledges, but are optimistic about the general usefulness of negotiations, particularly if they are more involved.

    • Astrid Dannenberg
    • , Sonja Zitzelsberger
    •  & Alessandro Tavoni