Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    Metal–organic frameworks, when evacuated, are metastable with respect to a dense phase of the same components. Here, we review methods for kinetic stabilization of the porous phase and discuss progress in designing stable frameworks for the capture of corrosive and coordinating gases.

    • Adam J. Rieth
    • , Ashley M. Wright
    •  & Mircea Dincă
  • Review Article |

    The charge-transfer electronic states that form at the interfaces between electron-donor and electron-acceptor components have a key role in the electronic processes in organic solar cells. This Review describes the current understanding of how these charge-transfer states affect device performance.

    • Veaceslav Coropceanu
    • , Xian-Kai Chen
    • , Tonghui Wang
    • , Zilong Zheng
    •  & Jean-Luc Brédas
  • Review Article |

    2D materials exhibit diverse properties and can be integrated in heterostructures: this makes them ideal platforms for quantum information science. This Review surveys recent progress and identifies future opportunities for 2D materials as quantum-dot qubits, single-photon emitters, superconducting qubits and topological quantum computing elements.

    • Xiaolong Liu
    •  & Mark C. Hersam
  • Review Article |

    Organoids are 3D cell culture systems that mimic the structural and functional characteristics of organs. In this Review, the authors discuss the biochemical and mechanical material properties relevant for organoid formation and highlight materials designed with the aim to establish organoid cultures as powerful research platforms.

    • Michael J. Kratochvil
    • , Alexis J. Seymour
    • , Thomas L. Li
    • , Sergiu P. Paşca
    • , Calvin J. Kuo
    •  & Sarah C. Heilshorn
  • Review Article |

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive form of brain cancer. This Review surveys the role of biomaterials-based models of the glioblastoma microenvironment, which plays a crucial role in tumour progression, in the advancement of the understanding of the tumour–microenvironment interaction and in the development of effective treatments.

    • Kayla J. Wolf
    • , Joseph Chen
    • , Jason D. Coombes
    • , Manish K. Aghi
    •  & Sanjay Kumar
  • Review Article |

    Synthetic nanopores in 2D materials are an emerging platform for power harvesting from the controlled mixing of fresh and salty water. This Review surveys their physics and materials properties and the progress in the design of new, high-density, ion-selective membrane materials.

    • Michal Macha
    • , Sanjin Marion
    • , Vishal V. R. Nandigana
    •  & Aleksandra Radenovic
  • Review Article |

    Organic semiconductors form clean interfaces with diverse materials, including metals, other organic semiconductors, electrolytes, dielectrics and biological organisms. In this Review, we discuss the properties of these interfaces and their central role in the function of organic electronic devices.

    • Mats Fahlman
    • , Simone Fabiano
    • , Viktor Gueskine
    • , Daniel Simon
    • , Magnus Berggren
    •  & Xavier Crispin
  • Review Article |

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is highly sought after for mid-IR nanophotonics, nonlinear and quantum optics, and as an efficient UV emitter. This Review surveys its fundamental physical properties, applications and synthesis.

    • Joshua D. Caldwell
    • , Igor Aharonovich
    • , Guillaume Cassabois
    • , James H. Edgar
    • , Bernard Gil
    •  & D. N. Basov
  • Review Article |

    Despite their excellent macroscopic operational parameters, halide perovskites exhibit heterogeneity in materials properties at all lateral and vertical length scales. In this Review, we discuss the nature of heterogeneity in halide perovskites and assess the impact of these non-uniformities on their optoelectronic properties and how the heterogeneity may even be beneficial for device properties.

    • Elizabeth M. Tennyson
    • , Tiarnan A. S. Doherty
    •  & Samuel D. Stranks
  • Review Article |

    Materials with vanishingly small dielectric permittivity, known as epsilon-near-zero materials, enable strong ultrafast optical nonlinear responses within a sub-wavelength propagation length. This Review surveys the various observations of nonlinear phenomena in this class of materials.

    • Orad Reshef
    • , Israel De Leon
    • , M. Zahirul Alam
    •  & Robert W. Boyd
  • Review Article |

    High-entropy alloys have greatly expanded the compositional space for alloy design. In this Review, the authors discuss model high-entropy alloys with interesting properties, the physical mechanisms responsible for their behaviour and fruitful ways to probe and discover new materials in the vast compositional space that remains to be explored.

    • Easo P. George
    • , Dierk Raabe
    •  & Robert O. Ritchie
  • Review Article |

    Topological nanomaterials exhibit enhanced topological surface states and are thus promising for next-generation electronic devices and quantum computations. This Review discusses synthesis and transport results of topological nanomaterials, with a special focus on 1D topological superconductivity realized using topological insulator nanowires.

    • Pengzi Liu
    • , James R. Williams
    •  & Judy J. Cha
  • Review Article |

    Supramolecular gels comprise low-molecular weight gelators that assemble by non-covalent interactions. In this Review, a range of fabrication methods, as well as strategies for shaping, structuring and patterning supramolecular gels are discussed.

    • Phillip R. A. Chivers
    •  & David K. Smith
  • Review Article |

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, which results in an insulin deficiency. In this Review, the authors discuss immunomodulatory biomaterials for β-cell replacement and for the induction of tolerogenic immune responses to prevent, delay or reverse the disease.

    • C. L. Stabler
    • , Y. Li
    • , J. M. Stewart
    •  & B. G. Keselowsky
  • Review Article |

    Nanoscale and microscale materials can be used as drug delivery vehicles to target specific lymph node-resident cell subtypes for immunotherapy. In this Review, the authors discuss the transport mechanisms to and from lymph nodes and how they can be explored for drug delivery.

    • Alex Schudel
    • , David M. Francis
    •  & Susan N. Thomas
  • Review Article |

    Cancer nanomedicine in combination with immunotherapies offers the possibility to amplify antitumour immune responses and to sensitize tumours to immunotherapies. In this Review, the authors discuss combination immunotherapy based on nanoparticle platforms designed for chemotherapy, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, radiotherapy and gene therapy.

    • Jutaek Nam
    • , Sejin Son
    • , Kyung Soo Park
    • , Weiping Zou
    • , Lonnie D. Shea
    •  & James J. Moon
  • Review Article |

    Macroscale delivery devices can be used to manipulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In this Review, the authors highlight important cellular targets of immunotherapies in tissue repair and cancer and discuss macroscale biomaterials strategies for therapeutic immunomodulation.

    • Maxence O. Dellacherie
    • , Bo Ri Seo
    •  & David J. Mooney
  • Review Article |

    Recent breakthroughs in crystal structure prediction have enabled the discovery of new materials and of new physical and chemical phenomena. This Review surveys structure prediction methods and presents examples of results in different classes of materials.

    • Artem R. Oganov
    • , Chris J. Pickard
    • , Qiang Zhu
    •  & Richard J. Needs
  • Review Article |

    Engineering immune cells and organs using materials enables the investigation of immune responses and the development of immunotherapies. In this Review, the authors discuss 2D and 3D approaches to recreate key cell-level, tissue-level and organ-level immune functionalities of primary, secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs.

    • Sungwoong Kim
    • , Shivem B. Shah
    • , Pamela L. Graney
    •  & Ankur Singh
  • Review Article |

    Polymers are ubiquitous in batteries as binders, separators, electrolytes and electrode coatings. In this Review, we discuss the principles underlying the design of polymers with advanced functionalities to enable progress in battery engineering, with a specific focus on silicon, lithium-metal and sulfur battery chemistries.

    • Jeffrey Lopez
    • , David G. Mackanic
    • , Yi Cui
    •  & Zhenan Bao
  • Review Article |

    The mechanical properties of blood play an important role in determining blood behaviour in health and disease. In this Review, the authors discuss materials for the recreation of the microenvironment of blood cells and the concept of mechanical homeostasis in blood vessels, blood and blood clots.

    • Yongzhi Qiu
    • , David R. Myers
    •  & Wilbur A. Lam
  • Review Article |

    Oxide superlattices reveal emergent phenomena if the balance between competing degrees of freedom is altered. In this Review, synthetic approaches to tap the properties of competing ground states are described, focusing on two examples — one example yielding a room-temperature multiferroic and a second producing polarization skyrmions.

    • Ramamoorthy Ramesh
    •  & Darrell G. Schlom
  • Review Article |

    Ferroelectrics-based materials can display a negative capacitance (NC) effect, providing an opportunity to implement NC in electronic circuits to improve their performance. In this Review, the authors discuss static and transient NC responses in ferroelectrics and highlight proof-of-concept experiments and possibilities for device implementation.

    • Jorge Íñiguez
    • , Pavlo Zubko
    • , Igor Luk’yanchuk
    •  & Andrés Cano
  • Review Article |

    Adding a third component into a binary blend is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving all photovoltaic parameters in organic solar cells. In this Review, we discuss the role of the third component in influencing the energetics, charge-carrier recombination and stability in ternary solar cells.

    • Nicola Gasparini
    • , Alberto Salleo
    • , Iain McCulloch
    •  & Derya Baran
  • Review Article |

    This Review outlines the ability of DNA to direct the organization of particle-based building blocks into crystalline architectures. These advancements permit programmable control of each structural element of colloidal crystalline materials and enable the design of functional and responsive behaviours.

    • Christine R. Laramy
    • , Matthew N. O’Brien
    •  & Chad A. Mirkin
  • Review Article |

    Laser pulses can trigger fast changes in magnetic state, facilitating new magnetic data storage and memory devices. This Review outlines the mechanisms of all-optical switching and the materials suitable for the optical control of magnetism and tests these mechanisms and materials in terms of speed, accompanying dissipations and scalability. Finally, the large-scale integration of devices in memory applications with low-energy dissipations is discussed.

    • Alexey V. Kimel
    •  & Mo Li
  • Review Article |

    Metal halide perovskite nanostructures are promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this Review, we discuss the synthesis and properties of 1D and 2D single-crystal perovskite nanostructures, examine potential optoelectronic applications and highlight recent studies in which these nanostructures have been used to study the fundamental properties of perovskites.

    • Yongping Fu
    • , Haiming Zhu
    • , Jie Chen
    • , Matthew P. Hautzinger
    • , X.-Y. Zhu
    •  & Song Jin
  • Review Article |

    Mucus is a 3D hydrogel composed of mucins that houses the human microbiome. Mucus guides microbial cell fate and is involved in the suppression of pathogenic bacteria. In this Review, the authors discuss the design of synthetic mucins for the investigation of mucus–microbiome interactions and for applications in 3D in vitro cell culture.

    • Caroline Werlang
    • , Gerardo Cárcarmo-Oyarce
    •  & Katharina Ribbeck
  • Review Article |

    Shape-memory materials can generate programmable movements triggered by an external stimulus, such as an environmental change. In this Review, the authors discuss mechanisms, fabrication schemes, characterization methods and applications of the one-way shape-memory effect enabling shape recovery and of reversible shape-memory effects exhibiting actuation behaviour.

    • Andreas Lendlein
    •  & Oliver E. C. Gould
  • Review Article |

    Man-made fibrillar hydrogels mimic the structure of filamentous extracellular matrices and can be used as biomaterials for 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. In this Review, the authors discuss the design and properties of fibrillar hydrogels and explore different building blocks, assembly mechanisms, properties and applications.

    • Elisabeth Prince
    •  & Eugenia Kumacheva
  • Review Article |

    Chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs) are leading candidates for non-volatile memory and neuro-inspired computing devices. This Review focuses on the crystallization mechanisms of PCMs as well as the design principles to achieve PCMs with high switching speeds and good data retention, which will aid the development of PCM-based universal memory and neuro-inspired devices.

    • Wei Zhang
    • , Riccardo Mazzarello
    • , Matthias Wuttig
    •  & Evan Ma
  • Review Article |

    Liquid cell electron microscopy provides a unique combination of spatial and temporal resolution, which is useful for imaging static and dynamic processes in liquids. In this Review, we discuss the resolution expected when imaging liquid specimens in transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy and consider the benefits of spherical and chromatic aberration for resolution, image interpretability and dose efficiency.

    • Niels de Jonge
    • , Lothar Houben
    • , Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski
    •  & Frances M. Ross
  • Review Article |

    3D electrodes with interconnected and interpenetrating pathways enable efficient electron and ion transport. In this Review, the design and synthesis of such 3D electrodes are discussed, along with their ability to address charge transport limitations at high areal mass loading and to enable composite electrodes with an unprecedented combination of energy and power densities in electrochemical energy storage devices.

    • Hongtao Sun
    • , Jian Zhu
    • , Daniel Baumann
    • , Lele Peng
    • , Yuxi Xu
    • , Imran Shakir
    • , Yu Huang
    •  & Xiangfeng Duan
  • Review Article |

    Ingestible electronics can be used as clinical tools for diagnosis and therapy. In this Review, the authors discuss clinical applications of ingestible electronic devices and highlight materials and sensor technologies, drug delivery applications and major challenges and opportunities for clinical translation, such as safety, powering and communication.

    • Christoph Steiger
    • , Alex Abramson
    • , Phillip Nadeau
    • , Anantha P. Chandrakasan
    • , Robert Langer
    •  & Giovanni Traverso
  • Review Article |

    The dynamics of epithelial tissues play a key role in tissue organization, both in health and disease. In this Review, the authors discuss materials and techniques for the study of epithelial movement and mechanics and investigate epithelia as active matter from a theoretical and experimental perspective.

    • Wang Xi
    • , Thuan Beng Saw
    • , Delphine Delacour
    • , Chwee Teck Lim
    •  & Benoit Ladoux
  • Review Article |

    Holographic duality establishes a connection between quantum gravity and strongly correlated many-body systems, providing a unique opportunity to study quantum black holes in the laboratory. In this Review, Sachdev–Ye–Kitaev models, which illustrate this duality, are discussed, along with their potential realization in ultracold gases, graphene, semiconducting nanowires and 3D topological insulators.

    • Marcel Franz
    •  & Moshe Rozali
  • Review Article |

    Combining low-dimensional and 3D perovskites is a promising approach to achieve stable and efficient solar cells. In this Review, we discuss the structural, optical and photophysical properties of low-dimensional perovskites, compare the stability and efficiency of 2D and 3D perovskite devices, and consider 2D/3D composites as a strategy to increase the stability of perovskite solar cells.

    • Giulia Grancini
    •  & Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin
  • Review Article |

    Inorganic semiconductor devices enable the formation of functional interfaces with cells and tissues to detect or provide physical stimuli. In this Review, inorganic semiconductor materials are discussed for electronic and optoelectronic sensing, optoelectronic and photothermal stimulation and photoluminescent in vivo imaging.

    • Yuanwen Jiang
    •  & Bozhi Tian
  • Review Article |

    Sound waves can be manipulated using structurally designed 2D materials of subwavelength thickness. This emerging field, namely, acoustic metasurfaces, is driven by the desire to control acoustic wave propagation using compact devices.

    • Badreddine Assouar
    • , Bin Liang
    • , Ying Wu
    • , Yong Li
    • , Jian-Chun Cheng
    •  & Yun Jing
  • Review Article |

    Cells can be transplanted into the body to both repair injured or diseased tissue and restore tissue function. This Review discusses how biomaterial design strategies can be used to improve cell survival, influence the fate of transplanted cells, and favourably manipulate the host microenvironment and the immune system.

    • Nikolaos Mitrousis
    • , Ana Fokina
    •  & Molly S. Shoichet
  • Review Article |

    Graphene-integrated photonics is a platform for wafer-scale manufacturing of modulators, detectors and switches for next-generation datacom and telecom systems. This Review describes how these functions can be achieved with graphene layers placed on top of optical waveguides, acting as passive light guides, thus simplifying the current technology. In addition, a roadmap of the technological requirements for the datacom and telecom markets is presented.

    • Marco Romagnoli
    • , Vito Sorianello
    • , Michele Midrio
    • , Frank H. L. Koppens
    • , Cedric Huyghebaert
    • , Daniel Neumaier
    • , Paola Galli
    • , Wolfgang Templ
    • , Antonio D’Errico
    •  & Andrea C. Ferrari
  • Review Article |

    A responsive material in the form of a polymer or hydrogel can be combined with a signal transduction element in the form of plasmonic particles, resulting in hybrid plasmonic polymer nanocomposites. In this Review, the fabrication and applications of such nanocomposites are discussed. The applications described focus on optical data storage, sensing and imaging and the use of photothermal gels for in vivo therapy.

    • Isabel Pastoriza-Santos
    • , Calum Kinnear
    • , Jorge Pérez-Juste
    • , Paul Mulvaney
    •  & Luis M. Liz-Marzán
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses how biomaterials can be used to recreate and understand the influence of specific tumour microenvironment properties on cancer progression and highlights materials-based strategies to capture, detect and assess metastatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    • Pranjali Beri
    • , Bibiana F. Matte
    • , Laurent Fattet
    • , Daehwan Kim
    • , Jing Yang
    •  & Adam J. Engler
  • Review Article |

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) is a powerful experimental technique that can directly visualize electronic structures of materials. In this Review, the basic principles of ARPES are introduced, and its application to quantum materials, with a focus on topological quantum materials and transition metal dichalcogenides, is discussed.

    • Haifeng Yang
    • , Aiji Liang
    • , Cheng Chen
    • , Chaofan Zhang
    • , Niels B. M. Schroeter
    •  & Yulin Chen
  • Review Article |

    The past four decades have seen breathtaking developments in techniques and applications using synchrotron radiation for the characterization of heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes. In this Review, we discuss recent advances, focusing on spatial and temporal explorations of the solid catalyst.

    • Florian Meirer
    •  & Bert M. Weckhuysen
  • Review Article |

    Photon spectroscopies provide insight into a wide range of materials. In this Review, theoretical and computational efforts to understand, simulate and predict the results of photon spectroscopies are assessed for systems both in and out of equilibrium, with a focus on advances that reveal information about correlated materials.

    • Yao Wang
    • , Martin Claassen
    • , Chaitanya Das Pemmaraju
    • , Chunjing Jia
    • , Brian Moritz
    •  & Thomas P. Devereaux
  • Review Article |

    Interactions of nanoparticles with the kidneys affect their transport, clearance, targeting, therapeutic efficacy and biosafety in the body. This Review discusses nano–bio interactions of nanoparticles in the kidneys and highlights their potential for the detection and treatment of disease.

    • Bujie Du
    • , Mengxiao Yu
    •  & Jie Zheng
  • Review Article |

    Organ-on-a-chip devices can recreate key aspects of human physiology in vitro, offering an alternative to animal models for preclinical drug testing. This Review examines how tissue barrier properties, parenchymal tissue function and multi-organ interactions can be recreated in organ-on-a-chip systems and applied for drug screening.

    • Boyang Zhang
    • , Anastasia Korolj
    • , Benjamin Fook Lun Lai
    •  & Milica Radisic
  • Review Article |

    Heusler compounds, Weyl semimetals and the Berry phase are three current research fields of great interest. In this Review, we discuss the connection between the Berry phase and Weyl physics in the context of highly tunable Heusler compounds.

    • Kaustuv Manna
    • , Yan Sun
    • , Lukas Muechler
    • , Jürgen Kübler
    •  & Claudia Felser