Review Articles

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  • Palladium (Pd)-nonmetal nanostructures, as a special class of Pd-based alloys, have exhibited diversified advantages for fuel cell reactions. This minireview summarized the most recent progress in the synthesis of Pd-nonmetal nanostructures and their applications in fuel cells. Especially, this review proposed the promising strategies for enhancing the performance of Pd-nonmetal nanostructures in fuel cell applications. It is expected that this review will generate more research interest in the development of more advanced Pd-nonmetal nanocatalysts.

    • Mengjun Wang
    • Leigang Li
    • Xiaoqing Huang
    Review Article Open Access
  • Cell-derived exosomes have been rapidly developed and applied in various biomedical fields over the last decade, holding great potentials in tissue repair such as chronic wounds due to their excellent biocompatibility and immune stability. Recent advances in regulating the features and biological functions of cell-derived exosomes by biochemical and biophysical cues in the cell microenvironment are summarized. Then microenvironmental cue-regulated exosomes as therapeutic strategies to improve chronic wound healing are discussed, and hydrogel-based exosome delivery systems used in the treatment of chronic wounds are highlighted. Finally, ongoing challenges and future opportunities are proposed.

    • Wei Dai
    • Yuchen Dong
    • Yufei Ma
    Review Article Open Access
  • In this paper, we review a large number of recent studies on the synthesis of nanoparticles assisted by machine learning. Moreover, we describe the working steps of machine learning, the main algorithms, and the main ways to obtain datasets. Finally, we discuss the current problems of this research and provide an outlook.

    • Xueye Chen
    • Honglin Lv
    Review Article Open Access
  • This review focuses on the electron-phonon interactions in lead halide perovskite semiconductors, which dominate their optical and electronic properties by forming polarons. We describe the uniqueness of perovskite semiconductors in terms of long-range and short-range electron-phonon interactions. The formation of polarons profoundly affects the carrier effective mass, mobility, and various optoelectronic properties. These topics are explained with recent experimental data.

    • Yasuhiro Yamada
    • Yoshihiko Kanemitsu
    Review Article Open Access
  • This review highlights the recent advances in fluorescence microscopic visualization of synthetic hydrogels, bio-macromolecular hydrogels, organohydrogels, and supramolecular hydrogels. Topics related to the structural changes of hydrogels, hydrogel mechanics, and super-resolution imaging of hydrogels based on fluorescence microscopy are introduced. The design concepts, imaging mechanisms, and potential applications of the novel fluorescence visualization strategies are discussed in detail. Finally, our opinions on the major challenges of current research, possible solutions, and future directions are shared.

    • Jinpan Zhong
    • Tianyi Zhao
    • Mingjie Liu
    Review Article Open Access
  • This review describes an overview of the strategies used to prepare self-healing and self-restoring materials utilizing reversible and movable crosslinks. Reversible crosslinks, consisting of noncovalent bonds, can reversibly undergo repeated cleavage and reformation. Therefore, self-healing can be achieved by effectively regenerating reversible crosslinks between polymeric chains. Movable crosslinks consist of polymer chains that penetrate macrocyclic units and have self-restoring properties due to their sliding motion along the polymeric chains. Self-restoring materials can regain their original shape and mechanical properties after a cycle of loading and unloading external stress.

    • Ryohei Ikura
    • Junsu Park
    • Yoshinori Takashima
    Review Article Open Access
  • Various changes occur in the myocardial infarcted microenvironment. An in-depth understanding of these changes has enabled the development of the functional hydrogels for cardiac repair. This article introduces recent advance in functional hydrogels for the treatment of myocardial infarction, including MMP-responsive hydrogels, ROS-scavenging hydrogels, immunomodulatory hydrogels, conductive hydrogels, vascularized hydrogels, and 3D printed hydrogels. Future perspective is also presented.

    • Tengling Wu
    • Wenguang Liu
    Review Article Open Access
  • Owing to their ultrasmall size effect, nanoparticles (NPs) have been extensively researched in biomedicine for potential applications. They can frequently interact with cells in vivo, forming a series of nano-bio interfaces. The resulting nano-bio interfaces play an important role in dominating the physiological effects of NPs. This review will summarize the progress in nano-bio interface interactions based on theoretical models and simulations. The expected goal of this review is to determine how the properties of NPs affect their interaction with cell membranes, to guide the rational de novo design of NPs, and expand their potential biomedical applications.

    • Xiao Zhang
    • Guanghui Ma
    • Wei Wei
    Review Article Open Access
  • DNA double helix exploiting Watson–Crick base-pairing lays the foundation of DNA nanotechnology. However, other forms of nucleic acids (e.g., triplex, i-motif, and G-quadruplex) exhibiting noncanonical base-base interactions bring about novel functionality. Here, we review the interplay of naturally occurring noncanonical nucleic acids and artificial DNA nanostructures in biomedical applications that have not been possible by duplex formation alone.

    • Shiliang He
    • Zhilei Ge
    • Xiuhai Mao
    Review Article Open Access
  • In this review, we summarize the latest progress in the development of strategies to relieve tumor hypoxia for improved PDT efficacy, from the design of novel nonreactive oxygen carriers to reactive materials and other strategies, including the regulation of tumor microenvironments and PDT-involved multimodal therapy.

    • Zijun Shen
    • Qingming Ma
    • Jie Cao
    Review Article Open Access
  • This review encompasses syntheses, characterizations, and applications of InP magic-sized clusters (MSCs) which are originally found as intermediates during the growth of InP quantum dots (QDs). Various tools to characterize MSCs and the intermediate characteristics of InP MSCs and InP MSCs having incorporated heterogeneous atoms such as chlorine or zinc are discussed. Developments in the syntheses of InP QDs and MSC-mediated growth mechanisms involving fragments, monomers or other nanoclusters are also addressed.

    • Yongju Kwon
    • Sungjee Kim
    Review Article Open Access
  • This review introduce the structure and properties of electrospun nanofiber materials and the various strategies for assembling soft electronic devices such as sensors, transistors, and components for energy harvesting and storage.

    • Yan Wang
    • Tomoyuki Yokota
    • Takao Someya
    Review Article Open Access
  • For the organic ferromagnetic materials, strong couplings have been observed among the charge, orbit, spin, and phonon. Therefore, the recent progress of organic magnetoelectric and optomagnetic coupling effects are briefly summarized in this review paper. Magnetoelectric coupling and opto-magnetic coupling materials have great potential applications in low-power multifunctional multiferroic magnetoelectric memory and all magneto-optical recording, respectively. However, the mechanism of the origin of the couplings is still only partly understood. Thus, further studying on the organic magnetoelectric and opto-magnetic couplings could promote the understanding on the mechanism and their potential industrial applications.

    • Zhongxuan Wang
    • Wei Qin
    Review Article Open Access